agroforestry Africa

What is Agroforestry in Africa? 2

 AGROFORESTRY & OUR  MISSION IN AFRICA  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture in the form of Agroforestry.

Africa Agroforestry Problems

African agriculture is so heterogeneous that no leap forward in the farming of a single crop could transform it. The continent needs a dozen green revolutions. 

The vast continent has 60% of the world’s uncultivated arable land, most of it un-farmed. The land already under cultivation, mostly by small farmers, could produce far more. Crop yields in Africa are between one-third and one-half of the global average. The quality of soil is often poor, because of over-farming, but that could be fixed by fertilizers. Africa-rate-of-growth-agric

Sadly the global climate has worsened for farmers globally over the past few years and this has drastically affected the growth of crops.

It is no secret that the current El Niño phenomenon has caused drought in the global coffee-lands, particularly Central America, the Caribbean, and East Africa. Satellite-derived rainfall estimates indicate that the first half of the rainy season (June-August) was the driest in 35 years. The result is that many plants either die or on life support by the time the rains arrive the following season. Climatic conditions are now forcing farmers to break with tradition and search for alternatives to their crops.

Africa has suffered the biggest droughts in modern history. In 2011, the worst drought in 60 years triggered a hunger crisis in East Africa that impacted 13 million people and left an estimated 50,000 to 100,000 dead. The United Nations estimated the cost of the humanitarian response at $1.5 billion. That crisis happened not in the agricultural regions of sub-Saharan Africa but in the dry land regions of Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. 

Prior to the ‘Green Revolution’, the majority of subsistence farming anywhere in the world involved mixed species, usually including tree products.  Pressures towards higher efficiency drove modern agriculture into mono cultures.

Africa’s population grew more steeply than India’s, and as a result production per person fell in much of the continent during the late 20th century.  In the past decades, the African population has rocketed from 220 million in 1950 to appalling 1 billion in 2010.

Africa is also a continent full of chaos. This alone will definitely deter the growth of agriculture to a large extent. Corruption and instability means that Africa can’t build institutions to a decent standard compared to their potential competitors.

One-third to one-half of its harvests routinely going to waste. Establishing better storage systems that reduce crop mold and losses caused by weevil depredation, thus enabling farmers to keep their crops off the market until prices are high, is another primary goal.

Africans need the ability to store crops somewhere other than in their houses, where the weevils get them. Processing foods near farms would help reduce such waste and provide decent paying jobs.

Worldwide, about 124 kg of artificial fertilizer is used per hectare of farmland per year. Many would argue that this is too high. But the 15 kg per hectare in sub-Saharan Africa is definitely too low.

Africa still has a thin road network to bring fertilizer in and produce out of the rural agricultural area; in rural areas the roads are often primitive and impassable after a heavy shower. There are difficulties of moving fresh produce over long distances that makes intensification near the big markets particularly attractive.  Sub-Saharan Africa’s farms remain far less productive than Latin American and Asian ones. The continent as a whole exports less farm produce than Thailand.

Most farms are forced to rely on humanitarian food aid, a short-term solution that saves lives but reinforces the cycle of poverty and dependency in the African dry lands.

Exported goods to other African countries faced average tariffs of 8.7%, compared with 2.5% for those that exported goods beyond Africa. 

African cows are increasingly crossbred with European breeds to create tough animals that produce lots of milk. But animal vaccines remain expensive and are often unavailable, since they need to be kept cold.

What is Agroforestry in Africa?

Agroforestry can help to achieve climate change mitigation and adaptation while at the same time providing livelihoods for poor smallholder farmers in Africa.

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Agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems and technologies in which woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) are deliberately combined on the same management unit with herbaceous crops and/or animals. For example, the African oil palm, when grown as part of an agroforestry system and treated well, can provide a valuable and healthy source of oil for local consumption. Simultaneously, planting legumes (including edible beans, cow pea, pigeon pea) is essential to ensure healthy and fertile soils in an agroforestry system, as they replenish the nitrogen taken away with the harvest. These legumes can be grown as cover crops, intercropped or in rotation.

Many smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa have already been practicing agroforestry. These systems have prevailed despite persistent attempts to introduce monoculture production of annual crops, which have been much less successful in Africa than elsewhere. Agroforestry has been shown to provide a number of benefits to farmers. For instance, it can enhance soil fertility in many situations and improve farm household resilience through provision of additional products for sale or home consumption.

Agroforestry has a potential to contribute to food security and to meet the challenge of climate change. More ecological techniques such as agroforestry can improve yields, while increasing biodiversity and not requiring imports of foreign fertilizers and seeds, together with high genetic diversity in traditional crop mixtures, ensured most stable yields.  Trees also tap into deep groundwater rather than top soil moisture that annual crops rely on.

Trees are in fact critical to agricultural production everywhere. When crops and livestock fail, trees often withstand drought conditions and allow people to hold over until the next season. They also provide non-wood products such as indigenous fruits, mushrooms, thatch grass and material for medicinal use.

Agroforestry is often absent from recommendations for ensuring food security under climate change, even though many practices have been shown to deliver benefits for rural development, buffer against climate variability, help rural populations adapt to climate change and contribute to climate change mitigation. 

Many studies have shown that agroforestry practices can slow or reverse land degradation, sequester carbon from the atmosphere and secure rural livelihoods through provision of ecological and economic benefits. 

 A recent paper showed that agroforestry reduced food insecurity during drought and flooding in western Kenya by 25% due to increased income and improved livelihoods. 

In Malawi, maize yields were increased up to 280% in the zone under the tree canopy compared with the zone outside the tree canopy. In Zambia, recent unpublished observations showed that unfertilized maize yields in the vicinity of the Faidherbia acacia tree averaged 4.1 tonnes per hectare, compared to 1.3 tonnes nearby but beyond the tree canopy. They recommend that farmers establish 100  Faidherbia trees on each hectare of maize that is planted.

Here are some examples of mixing orchards with Nitrogen fixing crops:Africa cropland density Sun hemp

  • Sun Hemp – (Crotalaria juncea) mixed with Forage Sorghum – Africa cropland density cover crop forage Sorghum(Sorghum Sudan spp.) planted in young Macadamia nut orchard. Both are tall upright fast growing cover crops – perfect to be mixed together. Fixes large amounts of Nitrogen – tolerant of nematodes. Cattle will eat it – but don’t like it – high in alkaloids.Africa cropland density dolichos Beans2
  • Fast vigorous growth of Dolichos Beans cover crops species out-competes weeds.Africa cropland density Cow Beans
  • Cow Peas – Vigna unguiculata – used in summer – can be grazed, ensiled or made into hay. Fixes Nitrogen. Good soil cover

Practices have recently been adopted by more than 200,000 small-scale dairy farmers in highland regions of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda, with the Latin American calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus, a leguminous species) being the most commonly planted fodder tree (Wambugu et al. 2011). Farmers use calliandra as a substitute for dairy meal or as a supplement to a basal diet including crop residues, Napier grass and natural grasses. One kilogram of dried calliandra leaf is estimated to contain the same amount of digestible protein as the same weight of dairy meal (Roothaert et al. 2003). For each dairy cow, a farmer needs approximately 500 calliandra trees to provide sufficient feed throughout the year, although the majority of farmers plant fewer than this. Normally, calliandra is ready for first pruning for fodder nine to 12 months after initial field establishment; pruning of each tree is then carried out four or five times a year, and the cut fodder carried to enclosed livestock for consumption.

Species producing commonly eaten fruit include:

  • Balanites aegyptiaca: 100–150 kg/mature tree
  • Boscia senegalensis: 3.9 kg/ha
  • Moringa oleifera: 1 000 pods/tree
  • Ziziphus mauritiana: 80–130 kg/tree
  • Tamarindus indica: 150–200 kg/tree
  • Bombax costatum: up to 1 500 capsules (fibre)/tree

 The category of non-timber products includes:

  • bark, leaves and stems for making ropes, baskets, mats and other household products such as utensils
  • fruit and other extracted substances to provide dietary supplements and ingredients for brewing
  • edible animal and plant products such as honey, insects and mushrooms
  • plant products (roots, bulbs, leaves and fruits) for medicinal and cultural purposes
  • grass and reed for thatching, weaving, basketry and other applications

Agroforestry  & Dry Savannas in Africa

Africa Aridity

Crops are combined with tree species with little negative effect. Tree and crop inter cropping systems are both indigenous and agroforestry systems are common in sub-Saharan Africa. In general, intercropping can enhance soil organic matter, and thereby carbon (C) sequestration, can increase resilience to drought in sub-Saharan Africa, and contribute to climate change mitigation. 

The raising of seedlings, field planting, pruning, etc., of exotic fodder trees is relatively knowledge intensive. Species planted in the drier areas include: paw paw, mulberry, lemon, peach, guava, marula, syringa berry, snot apple, rubber hedge, and cockwood.  

Shea fruits have greater importance to the inhabitants of the drier savannas such as the Sahel, where shea fruits have been shown to have higher nutritional values. Shea fruit are a rich source of sugars, protein, calcium, and potassium during the “hungry season”, when food stores run low and the energy-intensive work of preparing land for planting must be done. Karité or shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) nuts make a high quality vegetable butter.

Sorghum grain productivity was significantly superior under Vitellaria trees than at a distance of three times the canopy radius, but this was more conspicuous under the smaller trees in the experiment. A higher topsoil moisture under woody canopies than in treeless sites appears to be a common pattern during the rainy season and some time afterwards. The mean annual soil evaporation directly beneath the tree canopy is reduced by 35% , equivalent to 21% of rainfall.

The use of Vitellaria butter in cosmetics is expanding rapidly. While current demand is around 200 tons, the potential demand for Vitellaria for cosmetics products has been estimated at a maximum of 1,500 tons a year worldwide (Brun, 1996). However, the adoption of European norms authorizing the use of Vitellaria for cocoa butter substitution. 

Consumption patterns for Vitellaria paradoxa butter and Parkia biglobosa seeds, respectively around 10 and 3.6 kg/yr/person in West Africa.

Gum arabic from Acacia senegal is a water-soluble exudate produced predominantly in Sudan and used in numerous food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and other industries. 

Agroforestry & Higher Rainfall Belt in Africa
Africa cropland density Maize Gliricidia Intercropping

Plantation forests occur on about 1.5 million ha of land in South Africa. In South Africa, plantation forestry is confined to the higher rainfall belt (above about 700 mm/year)

Plantation forestry in southern Africa is predominantly based on exotic species of pine, eucalyptus and Australian wattles. These require relatively high rainfall and, therefore, they are found in the wetter parts of the basin.

In Uganda, intercropping banana with coffee has been found to raise incomes by 50% and builds resilience to climate change impacts.

 The Potential for Africa Agroforestry

Africa now has the potential to record the biggest jump in food production of any region by applying technologies and infrastructure and financial incentives that are common most everywhere else.

In Africa much of the new production just came from new land. In the early 1960s sub-Saharan Africa had 1.5 m square kilometers given over to arable farming; now it uses 800,000 square kilometers more.

There is some naturally fertile land in the south and around the East African Rift, which runs through Rwanda. But much of the interior is barely worth farming.  In fact, 40% of Africa is classified as arid or semi-arid.

Many of the high-yielding seeds are being developed in Africa for Africans. N’Tji Coulibaly of the Institut d’Economie Rurale in Mali has developed six hybrid maize varieties. Because these tolerate drought well, they can be planted north and east of the capital, Bamako, in fields where sorghum is now the dominant crop. Another nearby team has created a variety of sorghum that yields about 40% more than the indigenous kind even without additional fertilizer.

Eventually, you can expect bigger yield on a limited amount of land by partnering of cooperatives of the small plots and farm with heavy machinery, use fertilizers and pesticides and avail yourself of advanced modern biotechnology i.e. genetically engineered crops.

 Additionally, the uniform profession of farmers means that effective solutions are highly replicable and scalable, which is attractive to donors and investors.

MicroFinance

Hands around world3

Microfinance is widely known for the incredible speed with which it has scaled to reach hundreds of millions of people, and the positive effect it has had in reducing poverty.

Large proportions of the populations, that work in an agricultural sector, does not attract much investment from either government or private investors.

Small farmers are usually starved of credit—one large survey for the World Bank found that only 1% of Nigerian farmers borrowed to buy fertilizer.

While 65 percent of Africa’s population is engaged in agricultural livelihoods, only approximately 1 percent of bank lending across the continent goes to the agricultural sector.

Farmers have surprisingly limited access to credit. Most high interest micro finance institutions focus on serving urban poor, and they perceive farmers as high risk.  In their assessments, farmer income is irregular and highly susceptible to environmental shocks, and many smallholder farmers have low incomes and low productivity.

Insecure farmers tend not to invest much, either because they do not see the point or because they cannot get credit. These problems can be particularly bad for women. One study in Ghana found that women farmers were less likely to let their land lie fallow (a simple way of increasing its fertility). They seem to have feared losing it if they did not plant it continuously.

There is a huge demand for financial services among farmers that is still unaddressed. For example, the total amount of debt financing available to small holder farmers in the developing world is approximately $9 billion. This amount meets less than 3% of the estimated $450 billion global demand.

Living Water MicroFinance Inc.Micro loan4

Since farmers comprise the largest and poorest group at the bottom of the pyramid, financial tools for farmers also have very high impact potential for micro finance institutions guided by a social mission. Sustained growth in the agriculture sector has proven 2-4 times more effective at reducing poverty and improving livelihoods than growth in other sectors.

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. move women out of extreme poverty, from beggars to lenders, so that they have increased assets, a committed savings income, usefully large sums of money for bigger expenditures like healthcare and education for their children, and most importantly, the ability to respond to shocks like extreme droughts. 

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. encourages farmers to grow enough, after repaying their loans, to feed their families for a full year until their next harvest. They market the newly realized excess crop coming from the higher yields. And with the proceeds they are able to pay school fees, buy more land, buy a cow, etc. It is a hand up, not a hand out. And it doesn’t require government interference.

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. encourages agriculture with a stable as well as a harmonious society. This non-profit company encourages land tenure and a motive for the farmer to manage the land for long term viability without being trapped in debt.

For about $50 that is paid back over the course of the year, the organization provides fertilizer, modern seeds, and weekly training to smallholder farmers. To start, Living Water MicroFinance Inc. arranges the bulk purchase of items for distribution at churches near its clients’ modest homes, saving them the effort of having to navigate treacherous roads and lack of quality control at local shops.

The organization’s field directors then teach local farmers how to rotate and diversify their crops to improve the nutrition and health of the soil, and to measure the distance between seeds while planting. 

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. pairs their loans with agriculture training, so that farmers can maximize the income impact of the seed and fertilizer that they use. These principles allow their clients to see at least a 50 percent increase in farm income per acre. Field officers use meetings to encourage continuous repayment and offer modest incentives for meeting targets early.

Instead of enforcing a strict weekly repayment structure, the flexible repayment structure has just two deadlines for clients. First, farmers must meet a “prepayment” requirement before they receive any of our services (roughly 10 percent of their total loan size). The second repayment deadline is the final one, due after the harvest. After paying that first 10 percent, farmers are free to make repayment on their own schedule, at any time throughout the season.

This type of flexible repayment schedule works because it meets the needs of smallholder farmers, boosts demand for credit and increases the amount invested in farm inputs. And it has been shown that offering a flexible repayment schedule generally does not increase delinquency or default among microfinance clients. For example, family finances are compromised by the academic calendar, which starts in January, meaning tuition fees are due before the harvest.

Many supported farm families eventually expand by raising goats, hens, chickens, or cows, primarily for milk sales or for trading rather than for food. In addition to livestock production, crops and forestry, other activities and land uses:

  1. broiler and layer production
  2. rearing of rabbits for meat and mohair
  3. fish farming
  4. feed lots of cattle

Changes in land use practices on rented lands were allowed only in regard to annual crops, not for perennial crops and long cycle crops such as cassava. Within such a land tenure system, planting trees raises several issues on tree and tree products ownership, land renting agreements and, more generally, on the social organization and power structures in the project area.

Recently the Economist wrote:”It would help a lot if farmers—particularly women—had clearer rights over land. Proper titles would encourage them to make long-term investments, like terracing and tree-planting, and allow them to use land as collateral for loans. Getting there is tricky. Many countries have long traditions of communal land management and a complicated web of customary farming rights. Charging in and handing out freeholds can actually strip people of rights. But a sensible first step, which a few countries are trying, is to register farmers’ entitlements so their land cannot be pinched.”  March 12, 2016

This is where Living Water MicroFinance Inc. enters: we negotiate terms with the land owner on behalf of the women farmers. We use our HUG Irrigation System as a negotiation tool.

Some crops may become impossible to grow in the places where they are grown today. Agriculture will remain a risky business, one in which a vital input, rain, cannot be controlled. One way to face that risk is to encourage irrigation, especially water-hoarding drip-irrigation fed by the HUG System.

MORE DETAILS:

 HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:
Tree Growth

OUR STRATEGY

Stage 1     Agricultural Mechanization of Africa                              
Stage 2   Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund 
Stage 3   Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives 
Stage 4   Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
Stage 5   Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.

IMPORTANT LINKS:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
  4. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  5. Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
  6. Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  7.  Deliverance Is: Deliveranceis.com
  8. God Love Letters: GodLoveLetters.com

     https://twitter.com/roaudet

Christianity and Hinduism Differences

BILLIONS OF CHRISTIANS CAN’ T ALL BE WRONG!

Christianity is not a philosophy, but it is  a relationship with God, your Creator,  in Christ TODAY. It is not knowledge of abstract principles.  

HOW DO WE KNOW THIS?

1. DELIVERANCE?

Some Christian disciples use deliverance to deliver away evil spirits influencing people. These evil spirits cause depression, addictions and illness through all forms of stress. 

2. COMPLETE SENSE OF PEACE?

After you have been delivered from evil influences, you will have a definite physical experience of a complete sense of peace.

3.  HEALING?

Once you experience a physical sense of peace because of deliverance, you know that you will be healed. This helps you build up your faith, which is very crucial: No faith! No healing!

Some Christian disciples have the gift of healing.   Only the Name of Jesus Christ makes healing and deliverance possible.

THE WHOLE FAMILY BENEFITS

In the end, one Christian conversion will benefit the whole family.  The gifts of the Holy Spirit of healing and deliverance will help the whole family. A prayer of deliverance of evil spirits will leave any member of the family with a complete sense of peace immediately. A prayer of healing from a Christian disciple produces 80% healing. The remaining healing comes from continued prayer of praise and thanksgiving until all the healing is complete. This healing comes from the Holy Spirit through the power in the Name of Jesus Christ.  No other god or deity or doctor uses this power. This proves the TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY. 

ASTONISHING PREDICTIONS

God divinely inspired the BIBLE . How do we know? Each of eight accurate predictions  shows a high probability mathematically. The probability of one individual fulfilling eight prophecies have odds of 1 in 10 17  (1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000). Jesus Christ fulfilled all prophecies, therefore the Bible MUST BE TRUE. 

DIVINE OR HUMAN CALIPHS

The Old Testament indicates another 40 astonishing predictions.

CHINA DECEASED RELATIVES

Christianity experiences stunning growth—from approximately 3.8 million adherents in China in 1956 to an estimated 87 to 100 million Christians today.

CHINA AND THE HOLY SPIRIT

Chinese Religion God

AN EXPERIMENT OF GOD’S TOUCH 2

HOW IS JESUS STILL ALIVE TODAY?

Jesus is alive today! He heals today (through His followers) and in many cases it is realized immediately. How else can you explain the explosion of Christianity, the world’s largest religion, on earth: 2.2 billion adherents, nearly a third (31 percent) of all 6.9 billion people on Earth. 

Christians know and feel His Presence; they communicate with Him personally; Christian prayers are always answered.

This author has been given the Gift of Healing only because he is a Christian Lay Missionary, who travels  two to three places every year. On his last trip to Columbia he successfully transferred his Gift to his Spanish translators, who were able to heal as he did. He has healed Muslims to their great surprise.

He also delivers away evil spirits along with their healing. All those who are delivered from evil spirits feel a complete physical  sense of peace.

DREAMS AND VISIONS

God can give a message to those non-Christians to change their heart.  God knows faith will be developed eventually. God will come to you in the form of dreams or visions. So be sensitive to any dreams or visions, when you ask God for it earnestly.

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES 2

PROOF OF HEAVEN 2

Is the BIBLE true? 2

HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED HOW TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN?

god proof

  • Christians don’t shout, “I live a clean life!” Christians whisper “I feel  lost, but now God found me and God forgives me.” 
  • Christians don’t speak with pride. They confess that they stumble and need Christ to be their guide.
  • Christians don’t say,” I’m strong.” They say they try to be strong because they need strength. 
  • Christians don’t brag about success, but they admit that they fail and they need God to clean the mess.
  • Christians don’t claim to be perfect, but God still believes in them.
  • Christians still feel the sting of pain. They have their share of headaches but they still call upon His Name.
  • Christians are not holier than others. They are simple sinners who receive God’s unbelievable Grace.

Christianity on a Table Napkin:

Deliverance EVIL SPIRITS

“If you declare with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.”                                                                                                                                     Romans 10:9

The real Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the Living God. He was send by God to come to the earth in the body of a human being. That was, so that He could suffer in the flesh, and take all our sins upon Himself and die in our place. He rose from the dead and lives to pray for us daily.
He is the Savior – The angel announced to Mary; …and you shall call His name JESUS: for He shall save His people from their sins.     Matthew 1:21  It means He has the power to free us, save us and deliver us from sin. He is merciful and has the power to forgive. He brings good news to the poor, heals the heart-broken, announce freedom to all captives, pardons all prisoners. He comforts mourners. He has healing in His hands.
To receive Jesus as your Savior… SAY:

Lord Jesus, You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God. Please hear me today and help me! I want to receive You as my Lord and Savior. Be Lord of my life!  Lord Jesus, I believe that You died for me and that God raised You from the dead. Forgive me all my sins and take all my sins away. Come into my heart and be my Savior and Lord, and fill me with Your Holy Spirit. Amen
Your life will begin to change in an amazing way. Without expecting  anything, be sensitive to any dreams or visions. 

God the Father will wipe every tear from our eyes, and there shall be no more death or mourning, crying out or pain. We will be like Him, for we will see Him as He is The Holy Spirit will have made all things new. Eternal joy will begin.  “For the Mighty One has done great things for me— holy is His name.”                                                     Luke 1: 49

Are we not like Barabbas who was justly condemned for murder, but saved by the innocent Jesus on the cross? Are we not like the adulterous woman, deserving of death by stoning, to whom Jesus says, “I do not condemn you”?  And Jesus saved them both. In fact, Jesus came to earth specifically to look for and save those who were lost, like you.

“Come now, let us settle the matter,” says the LORD, “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool”.                                       Isaiah 1:18

You may need some counseling with a pastor, priest or competent Christian worker, who will introduce you to a Short Course on Who is Jesus? Start by reading a short biography of Jesus in  the Gospel of Luke. Read several verses before going to bed and read the same verse upon arising.  He will defend you from attacks of the enemy when you ask Him.

Healing and Deliverance                                                 (Ctrl + Click to follow Link)

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