BIOCHAR global warming

SUSTAINABLE BIOCHAR AND GLOBAL WARMING 2

SUSTAINABLE BIOCHARBIOCHAR SOLUTIONS

Sustainable biochar is a powerfully simple tool to fight global warming. This 2,000 year-old practice converts agricultural waste into a soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security, and discourage deforestation. Sustainable biochar is one of the few technologies that are relatively inexpensive, widely applicable, and quickly scalable.

Farmers in Brazil have long known about the “black earth,” or terra preta, found over vast areas of the Amazon. In the last decade or two archaeologists have begun to realise that the terra preta was not a naturally occurring phenomenon, but had been cultivated over centuries, if not millennia.  They turned some of the wood into charcoal and then worked it back into the soil, creating an unusually rich and fertile ground.

Traditionally, people have used biochar and ash in their fields. This practice exists all over the world. There is a need to recognize the value and create awareness on biochar. Farmers know that wherever biomass is burnt in the field’s crop grows stronger, healthier and better.

 In East Africa, sugarcane and maize waste is normally burned in the field, as it has no other value. In-field burning returns approximately 2-5% of the original carbon to the soil and a negligible amount of NPK.  It does little to improve soil, and is considered a major source of particulate and soot emissions in the region.

Burning without oxygen can also mean burning without smoke, which leads to the idea of replacing home heating and cooking stoves with pyrolizing kilns that provide the same functions but are clean-burning, inexpensive and easy to use, and instead of generating smoke and ash.

Biochar is essentially charcoal, but burnt at a lower temperature and with a more restricted flow of oxygen; it has the potential to end the slash-and-burn cycle in Sub-Saharan Africa.

According to researcher Bruno Glaser at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, a hectare of meter-deep terra preta can hold 250 tons of carbon, as opposed to 100 tons of carbon in unimproved soils. 

THAT MEANS THAT THERE IS A POTENTIAL  OF 150 TONS OF CARBON CAPTURE/ HA POSSIBLE. (THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE THE FORESTATION ON THE SAME HECTARE)

In addition, the bio-char itself increases soil fertility, which allows farmers to grow more plants, which allows more bio-char to be added to the soil. Johannes Lehman, author of Amazonian Dark Earths, claims that combining bio-char and bio-fuels could draw down 9.5 billion tons per year, or 35 Gt CO2 per year equal to all our current fossil fuel emissions.

Biochar Trenches

This is the simplest and convenient method for farmers to convert the crop residue / biomass in the farm lands into biochar trenches. All the biochar, burnt soil remains within the field could be conveniently spread by the farmer within the whole field.

It is more convenient to make such trenches after ploughing the field. Trenches perpendicular to the slopes also benefit the steep sloppy areas as water harvesting means. The entire crop residue otherwise burnt openly can be collected and dumped into these trenches lengthwise. More biomass can be added during the process. Once the trench is filled with biomass and compact, it should be covered by grass, weeds, broad leaves, etc. After covering it up, soil should be spread on the trench, a lengthy mound is created. Some water could be used to make the soil compact and for sealing the mound of biomass. A small hole is left open for lighting the biomass at one end and at the other end a very small opening is left open. Once it is lit, white smoke starts emitting at the other end. The result is a smoking mound over the trenches.  

When it smokes too much or when it cracks, too much oxygen is getting in. You must plastered more mud and earth over that part until the leak was stopped. You must keep an eye on the smoke, in order to stop the burn when it changed color. You can stop it by covering it with more earth to entirely cut off the oxygen.biochar-soil-management8

The trenches are 2 to 3 feet depth and 1.5 to 2 feet width. Small holes are to be made in a biochar along the length of the trench at every 10 to 15 feet in a biochar trench. After 24 hours the biomass is converted into biochar. Any little smoke or embers should be quenched with water or covered with soil while removing the biochar from the trench.

The alternative is to burn the biomass openly, which causes pollution and very little carbon is formed.

Over the three year study period, t was observed that the chances of seeds germination are 20% to 30% higher in the soils with biochar compared to control soils. All soil properties except pH showed significant changes. In both biochar amended and control soils, salt, manganese, and potash content showed consistent increases while phosphate content decreased.  Additional phosphate fertilizer may be needed. Organic phosphorus fertilizers come primarily from mineral sources, like rock dust or from bone sources such as steamed bone meal or fish bone meal.

biochar-soil-management23

Cacao plants planted into soil rich in biochar started producing fruits half the normal time. Plants seem to be supported for longer and there is less yellowing of leaves. 

BIOCHAR COMPOSTdegraded-land24

Biochar alone has little value in improving the fertility of soil. However, to achieve results over a period of time, biochar must be directly applied to the soil or applied as mulch, i.e., soil microbes, green mulch, vermicompost, sand, gypsum, silt, etc.

The micropores that are formed in cellular plant structures become habitat for soil microbes. Its porous nature provides refuges for mycorrhizal fungi, which in effect enlarge the plant’s root system while also increasing its resistance to diseases. Every time the farmer digs or disturbs the soil the process is speeded up. 

Minimum number of days required for preparation of biochar compost is 15 days. – The field should be wet or biochar compost should be applied after the rains; this helps in the easy spread of soil microbes. – Silt collected from dried surface water bodies can be added to the biochar compost for the fields.

During the initial stages of preparation, the temperature of the biochar compost could reach 65°C to 70°C. The temperature should be kept below 50°C by sprinkling water and keeping it cool. The material can be covered with moistened straw and gunny bags. The material should be mixed every day for 15 days. After 15 days (the minimum time required), the mixture cools off to around 25°C to 30°C, at which time it is ready for application.

There are two other variations: prepared with green manure (10%), biochar (40%), baked earth (10%), and compost (40%) and that which is prepared without green manure.

Bottom layer – the base is made of stones and sticks to allow drainage and aeration

  • Next to bottom: compost of crop residues
  • Next to top – can be made of animal dung, egg shells and cooking waste
  • Top layer –about 25 mm deep with wood ash and phosphate if available.

Point – Biochar is applied at the point where perennial and big trees saplings would be planted, (e.g. orchards); where the density of plants per unit area would be low.

biochar-soil-management13

Line – Biochar is applied in the rows where plants are cultivated in rows (e.g. vegetables); where the density of plants per unit area is medium.

Globally, the commonly accepted biochar application rate is 1 to 5 tons per hectare of direct biochar application. This translates to a biochar compost application rate of about 2 to 10 tons per hectare. However, incremental application of biochar compost is preferred over a number of years.

Why do farmers burn?BIOCHAR SOLUTIONS

A bumper crop can leave a tremendous amount of straw, which can be very difficult to work into the soil or spread evenly across the field. Burning is one of the ways to dispose of the straw left after a harvest so fields can be made ready for seeding. A majority of farmers prefer not to burn the residual biomass. They prefer, for example, tilling the straw into the soil by chopping and spreading it out so it does not plug the seeding equipment.

However, burning straw is considered a low-cost alternative to plowing back the straw into the soil. At times, this is the only viable choice left for small farmers. However, burning the residue strips the soil of microbes and moisture that are essential to a crop’s long term health.

Say, India produces 800 million tons of agricultural waste annually. The use of fire in agriculture is being discouraged across the world as concerns mount about GHGs and air quality.

biochar-soil-management7

MORE DETAILS:

Agroforestry could help solve Climate Change.

 HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

Tree Growth

Stage 1     Agricultural Mechanization of Africa                        
Stage 2   Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund 
Stage 3   Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives 
Stage 4   Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
Stage 5   Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.

IMPORTANT LINKS:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
  4. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  5. Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
  6. Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  7.  Deliverance Is: Deliveranceis.com
  8. God Love Letters: GodLoveLetters.com

     https://twitter.com/roaudet

Christianity and Hinduism Differences

BILLIONS OF CHRISTIANS CAN’ T ALL BE WRONG!

Christianity is not a philosophy, but it is  a relationship with God, your Creator,  in Christ TODAY. It is not knowledge of abstract principles.  

HOW DO WE KNOW THIS?

1. DELIVERANCE?

Some Christian disciples use deliverance to deliver away evil spirits influencing people. These evil spirits cause depression, addictions and illness through all forms of stress. 

2. COMPLETE SENSE OF PEACE?

After you have been delivered from evil influences, you will have a definite physical experience of a complete sense of peace.

3.  HEALING?

Once you experience a physical sense of peace because of deliverance, you know that you will be healed. This helps you build up your faith, which is very crucial: No faith! No healing!

Some Christian disciples have the gift of healing.   Only the Name of Jesus Christ makes healing and deliverance possible.

THE WHOLE FAMILY BENEFITS

In the end, one Christian conversion will benefit the whole family.  The gifts of the Holy Spirit of healing and deliverance will help the whole family. A prayer of deliverance of evil spirits will leave any member of the family with a complete sense of peace immediately. A prayer of healing from a Christian disciple produces 80% healing. The remaining healing comes from continued prayer of praise and thanksgiving until all the healing is complete. This healing comes from the Holy Spirit through the power in the Name of Jesus Christ.  No other god or deity or doctor uses this power. This proves the TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY. 

ASTONISHING PREDICTIONS

God divinely inspired the BIBLE . How do we know? Each of eight accurate predictions  shows a high probability mathematically. The probability of one individual fulfilling eight prophecies have odds of 1 in 10 17  (1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000). Jesus Christ fulfilled all prophecies, therefore the Bible MUST BE TRUE. 

DIVINE OR HUMAN CALIPHS

The Old Testament indicates another 40 astonishing predictions.

CHINA DECEASED RELATIVES

Christianity experiences stunning growth—from approximately 3.8 million adherents in China in 1956 to an estimated 87 to 100 million Christians today.

CHINA AND THE HOLY SPIRIT

Chinese Religion God

AN EXPERIMENT OF GOD’S TOUCH 2

HOW IS JESUS STILL ALIVE TODAY?

Jesus is alive today! He heals today (through His followers) and in many cases it is realized immediately. How else can you explain the explosion of Christianity, the world’s largest religion, on earth: 2.2 billion adherents, nearly a third (31 percent) of all 6.9 billion people on Earth. 

Christians know and feel His Presence; they communicate with Him personally; Christian prayers are always answered.

This author has been given the Gift of Healing only because he is a Christian Lay Missionary, who travels  two to three places every year. On his last trip to Columbia he successfully transferred his Gift to his Spanish translators, who were able to heal as he did. He has healed Muslims to their great surprise.

He also delivers away evil spirits along with their healing. All those who are delivered from evil spirits feel a complete physical  sense of peace.

DREAMS AND VISIONS

God can give a message to those non-Christians to change their heart.  God knows faith will be developed eventually. God will come to you in the form of dreams or visions. So be sensitive to any dreams or visions, when you ask God for it earnestly.

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES 2

PROOF OF HEAVEN 2

Is the BIBLE true? 2

HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED HOW TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN?

god proof

  • Christians don’t shout, “I live a clean life!” Christians whisper “I feel  lost, but now God found me and God forgives me.” 
  • Christians don’t speak with pride. They confess that they stumble and need Christ to be their guide.
  • Christians don’t say,” I’m strong.” They say they try to be strong because they need strength. 
  • Christians don’t brag about success, but they admit that they fail and they need God to clean the mess.
  • Christians don’t claim to be perfect, but God still believes in them.
  • Christians still feel the sting of pain. They have their share of headaches but they still call upon His Name.
  • Christians are not holier than others. They are simple sinners who receive God’s unbelievable Grace.

Christianity on a Table Napkin:

Deliverance EVIL SPIRITS

“If you declare with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.”                                                                                                                                     Romans 10:9

The real Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the Living God. He was send by God to come to the earth in the body of a human being. That was, so that He could suffer in the flesh, and take all our sins upon Himself and die in our place. He rose from the dead and lives to pray for us daily.
He is the Savior – The angel announced to Mary; …and you shall call His name JESUS: for He shall save His people from their sins.     Matthew 1:21  It means He has the power to free us, save us and deliver us from sin. He is merciful and has the power to forgive. He brings good news to the poor, heals the heart-broken, announce freedom to all captives, pardons all prisoners. He comforts mourners. He has healing in His hands.
To receive Jesus as your Savior… SAY:

Lord Jesus, You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God. Please hear me today and help me! I want to receive You as my Lord and Savior. Be Lord of my life!  Lord Jesus, I believe that You died for me and that God raised You from the dead. Forgive me all my sins and take all my sins away. Come into my heart and be my Savior and Lord, and fill me with Your Holy Spirit. Amen
Your life will begin to change in an amazing way. Without expecting  anything, be sensitive to any dreams or visions. 

God the Father will wipe every tear from our eyes, and there shall be no more death or mourning, crying out or pain. We will be like Him, for we will see Him as He is The Holy Spirit will have made all things new. Eternal joy will begin.  “For the Mighty One has done great things for me— holy is His name.”                                                     Luke 1: 49

Are we not like Barabbas who was justly condemned for murder, but saved by the innocent Jesus on the cross? Are we not like the adulterous woman, deserving of death by stoning, to whom Jesus says, “I do not condemn you”?  And Jesus saved them both. In fact, Jesus came to earth specifically to look for and save those who were lost, like you.

“Come now, let us settle the matter,” says the LORD, “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool”.                                       Isaiah 1:18

You may need some counseling with a pastor, priest or competent Christian worker, who will introduce you to a Short Course on Who is Jesus? Start by reading a short biography of Jesus in  the Gospel of Luke. Read several verses before going to bed and read the same verse upon arising.  He will defend you from attacks of the enemy when you ask Him.

Healing and Deliverance                                                 (Ctrl + Click to follow Link)

Please send this document to others who speak different languages. Ask them to click on the TRANSLATION application called, “SPREAD THE WORD TO OTHER COUNTRIES!” at top of the page.

 

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