Refilling the Carbon Sink: Biochar
Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries with biochar to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture.
A Model for Sustainable Agriculture in the Humid Tropics:
Who would believe that something as simple as charcoal could do so much for the soil and the environment?
It was discovered that the landscape was crossed with unnaturally straight lines in striped patterns in the Amazon. The technique of using charcoal to improve the fertility of soils originated in the Amazon basin at least 2500 years ago. The native Indians of the region would create charcoal and incorporate it in small plots of land from 1 – 80 hectares in size. Terra Preta, as it is known in this area of Brazil, remains highly fertile until today, even with little or no application of fertilizers. And this is in a region of the world known for its highly infertile soils.
Cross section of soil 1 meter deep comparing Terra Preta on the left, with nearby Oxisol on the right of the type that is normally found in the Amazon basin.
Terra Preta soils in the Amazon are human enriched soils. Infertile soils can be transformed into fertile soils and long term carbon enrichment is feasible even in environments with low carbon sequestration capacity.
What is Biochar?
Biochar is found in soils around the world as a result of vegetation fires. The carbon in biochar resists degradation and can hold carbon in soils for hundreds to thousands of years. Biochar is produced through pyrolysis or gasification — processes that heat biomass in the absence (or under reduction) of oxygen.
Bio-char soil management systems can deliver tradable C emissions reduction, and C sequestered is easily accountable, and verifiable. The production of charcoal for soil amelioration purposes (slash and char) out of the aboveground biomass (secondary forest and crop residues) instead of converting it to carbon dioxide (CO2) through burning (slash and burn) could establish a C sink and could be an important step towards sustainability in tropical agriculture.
When the billions of trees eventually die, they will release all of their carbon back into the atmosphere. If it rots, the carbon is released again. It is better to plant billions of trees and, when they die, turn parts of them to biochar and keep the carbon locked up, while enriching the soil. The main trunk can be used for building purpose.
We have only two proven means of significantly and economically removing CO2 from the atmosphere: planting trees and sequestering biochar.
Incorporate the Biochar (with compost) to Improve the Soil, while removing CO2
This happens naturally in soil, but the process can be sped up by mixing biochar with compost. Nutrient retention with biochar is thought to improve with time, along with crop benefits. Mixing biochar with compost is a great idea, since apart from the ash, biochar is not a fertilizer in itself so the compost can provide nutrients which the biochar can help retain.
Biochar applied to the topsoil of the trees at the rate of 1kg per square meter have increased crop yields by 50% to 200%. Trials have also shown that trees grown in 5 – 10% biochar soils are more disease resistant.
In experimental plots, a combination of charcoal and compost into the rainforest soil boosted yields by 880% compared with fertiliser alone working together with a sand and biochar combination. This is don in several layers of each within the hole dug for a tree seedling.
Biochar increase water holding capacity by 20-50%: more nutrients stay in the soil instead of leaching into groundwater and causing pollution. Mineral content in these chars ranges from less than 1% to well over 50%. Biochar can reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4)—two potent greenhouse gases—from agricultural soils. Methane is over 20 times more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere than CO2, while nitrous oxide has a global warming potential that is 310 times greater than CO2.
A small land-holder can make charcoal out of agricultural residues and then dry and package that charcoal either for their own use, or for sale.
In Sweden, an urban tree planting system that uses 30% biochar to support healthy growth of the urban forest.
Using biochar for Irrigation, the advantages are:
- It is highly suitable for semi-arid and arid areas to prevent evaporation of water.
- The water gets purified due to biochar in the areas where polluted water is used for irrigation.
- Carbon sequestration takes place.
Biochar is already happening and can be done on a local scale:
Grass tablets were made from field grass about 3 years old. Note that the longest fibers are about the length of the diameter of the tablet. Shorter is better. These tablets are about 4 cm in diameter.
Grass has two other properties that are worth mentioning: superior nutrient levels, such as phosphorus and potassium, and much lower density – compared to wood.
Sometimes it is easier to compress the grass, taking advantage of green grass squishiness, then dry the formed material afterwards.
Sharpen your garden spade to a sharp edge with a tool grinder. Sprinkle about a quart of water to keep the dust and chips in the pail, and vigorously chop the charcoal into about one half inch chunks. Add water as necessary to make a slurry with the mixture of compost. Scientists found that biochar particle sizes ranging from a twelfth of an inch to three quarters of an inch showed the same effects on crops.
Added to the water has been some pee, cow poo and a tablespoon of molasses. Approximately 80% of the char has now sunk in a bucket after two weeks. The sunken char is much easier to break (in one hand) than the material still in dry storage.
Biochar making in open burn deep cone or a pyramid kiln, which is easier to make.
Each time the wood gets black and starts to ash, you add another layer. The layers underneath continue to cook out tar and gas, but they don’t burn because air is excluded. When the cone is full you quench it with water. You can throw a grill on it and cook your dinner before you put it out.
There are more than 120 companies already producing biochar-related products, including pyrolysis cook stoves.
About 30% biochar production
* 3 to 4 days for a batch of charcoal production
* Continuous hot water access (pot 1)
* Highly suitable for institutional cooking and as well making biochar
Additional heat generated by flaring the pyrolysis gases, used for cooking * Costs about Rs. 3000 ($30) for a 2’ width x 5’ depth x 6’ height: “GEO Biochar pit stove”. (Cost includes tin sheet for cover, three pot stove and chimney.)
They can be used three times a week to carbonize coconut shells or cobs of maize.
The PYRAMID method: Stack up a lot wood (as from cutting up a brush pile for instance) in a DENSE pyramid, any size. Use tinder to light the apex of the pyramid at the top.
The reaction zone will quietly ignite layer after layer with the upper layers of charcoal protected from burning by the expanded layer of deoxygenated gas rising by natural convection. Avoid windy days that would blow the protective gas sideways.
Stand by with a hose of watering cans to wet any char that extends beyond the protection and to put out the whole pile when done. After you think it’s out, think again because small embers can hide and come alive again.
Current science and expert opinion indicate that sustainable biochar sequestration could sequester up to 40% of the 100 GtC that are a risk to cause global warming.
Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. These include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Making biochar from these materials will entail no competition for land with any other land use option.
Biochar and bioenergy co-production can help combat global climate change by displacing fossil fuel use and by sequestering carbon in stable soil carbon pools. It will also reduce emissions of nitrous oxide.
One study shows that 12 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions could be offset with biochar production. In general, soil carbon sequestration during the first decade of adoption of best conservation agricultural practices is 1.8 tons CO2 per hectare per year. On 5 billion hectares of agricultural land, this could represent one-third of the current annual global emission of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels (i.e., 27 Pg CO2 per year).
We have evidence that there is 50 tons of black carbon per hectare to a one meter depth as a form of carbon storage. The cost of reducing a ton of CO2 is $15/ton.
The agronomic value of the biochar applied to land is $33/ton as fertilizer, while the value of char as a fuel is $55/ton. Assuming that 85% of the biochar consists of stabilised carbon, and a carbon tax of $15 (0.85 x $15) $12.75 is added for a total of ($33 +$12.75): $45.75/ton value. If the carbon tax fund doubled to $30/ton, so would the annual carbon offset values ($33 + $25.50): $58.5 /ton value.
At the rate of $15/ ton, the estimated annual carbon offset values is $18.7 Billion. If the carbon tax fund doubled to $30/ton, so would the annual carbon offset values: $37.5 billion. If the carbon tax fund increased to $50/ton, these values would increase 334% to $62.5 billion:
CARBON COLD STORAGE
Here is a charcoal building that was used as the cold room in Kenya. They would pour water down the walls and the evaporative effect would cool the room down, probably around 15◦C (59◦ F). So the food is kept in there.
Stage 1 Agricultural Mechanization of Africa
Stage 2 Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund
Stage 3 Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives
Stage 4 Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
Stage 5 Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.
Agroforestry could help solve Climate Change.
HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION
- A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
- An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
- A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
- The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
- Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
- Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
- Deliverance Is: Deliveranceis.com
- God Love Letters: GodLoveLetters.com
BILLIONS OF CHRISTIANS CAN’ T ALL BE WRONG!
Christianity is not a philosophy, but it is a relationship with God, your Creator, in Christ TODAY. It is not knowledge of abstract principles.
HOW DO WE KNOW THIS?
Some Christian disciples use deliverance to deliver away evil spirits influencing people. These evil spirits cause depression, addictions and illness through all forms of stress.
2. COMPLETE SENSE OF PEACE?
After you have been delivered from evil influences, you will have a definite physical experience of a complete sense of peace.
Once you experience a physical sense of peace because of deliverance, you know that you will be healed. This helps you build up your faith, which is very crucial: No faith! No healing!
Some Christian disciples have the gift of healing. Only the Name of Jesus Christ makes healing and deliverance possible.
THE WHOLE FAMILY BENEFITS
In the end, one Christian conversion will benefit the whole family. The gifts of the Holy Spirit of healing and deliverance will help the whole family. A prayer of deliverance of evil spirits will leave any member of the family with a complete sense of peace immediately. A prayer of healing from a Christian disciple produces 80% healing. The remaining healing comes from continued prayer of praise and thanksgiving until all the healing is complete. This healing comes from the Holy Spirit through the power in the Name of Jesus Christ. No other god or deity or doctor uses this power. This proves the TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY.
God divinely inspired the BIBLE . How do we know? Each of eight accurate predictions shows a high probability mathematically. The probability of one individual fulfilling eight prophecies have odds of 1 in 10 17 (1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000). Jesus Christ fulfilled all prophecies, therefore the Bible MUST BE TRUE.
The Old Testament indicates another 40 astonishing predictions.
Christianity experiences stunning growth—from approximately 3.8 million adherents in China in 1956 to an estimated 87 to 100 million Christians today.
HOW IS JESUS STILL ALIVE TODAY?
Jesus is alive today! He heals today (through His followers) and in many cases it is realized immediately. How else can you explain the explosion of Christianity, the world’s largest religion, on earth: 2.2 billion adherents, nearly a third (31 percent) of all 6.9 billion people on Earth.
Christians know and feel His Presence; they communicate with Him personally; Christian prayers are always answered.
This author has been given the Gift of Healing only because he is a Christian Lay Missionary, who travels two to three places every year. On his last trip to Columbia he successfully transferred his Gift to his Spanish translators, who were able to heal as he did. He has healed Muslims to their great surprise.
He also delivers away evil spirits along with their healing. All those who are delivered from evil spirits feel a complete physical sense of peace.
DREAMS AND VISIONS
God can give a message to those non-Christians to change their heart. God knows faith will be developed eventually. God will come to you in the form of dreams or visions. So be sensitive to any dreams or visions, when you ask God for it earnestly.
HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED HOW TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN?
- Christians don’t shout, “I live a clean life!” Christians whisper “I feel lost, but now God found me and God forgives me.”
- Christians don’t speak with pride. They confess that they stumble and need Christ to be their guide.
- Christians don’t say,” I’m strong.” They say they try to be strong because they need strength.
- Christians don’t brag about success, but they admit that they fail and they need God to clean the mess.
- Christians don’t claim to be perfect, but God still believes in them.
- Christians still feel the sting of pain. They have their share of headaches but they still call upon His Name.
- Christians are not holier than others. They are simple sinners who receive God’s unbelievable Grace.
Christianity on a Table Napkin:
“If you declare with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.” Romans 10:9
God the Father will wipe every tear from our eyes, and there shall be no more death or mourning, crying out or pain. We will be like Him, for we will see Him as He is The Holy Spirit will have made all things new. Eternal joy will begin. “For the Mighty One has done great things for me— holy is His name.” Luke 1: 49
Are we not like Barabbas who was justly condemned for murder, but saved by the innocent Jesus on the cross? Are we not like the adulterous woman, deserving of death by stoning, to whom Jesus says, “I do not condemn you”? And Jesus saved them both. In fact, Jesus came to earth specifically to look for and save those who were lost, like you.
“Come now, let us settle the matter,” says the LORD, “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool”. Isaiah 1:18
You may need some counseling with a pastor, priest or competent Christian worker, who will introduce you to a Short Course on Who is Jesus? Start by reading a short biography of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke. Read several verses before going to bed and read the same verse upon arising. He will defend you from attacks of the enemy when you ask Him.
Healing and Deliverance (Ctrl + Click to follow Link)
- Abuse and Trauma
- A Vision of Hell
- Breaking Free of Controlling Spirits
- Can a Smart Person believe in God
- Cigarette and Drug Bust
- Deliverance from Depression
- Deliverance from Drugs and Addiction
- Deliverance from Prison
- Deliverance PowerPoint
- Divine Healing
- Do you Know an Alcoholic?
- Don’t be Afraid of Fear
- Gluttony is Not Merely Overeating
- God’s Protection and Blessing
- Healing and Deliverance General Information
- Healing and Deliverance Instructions
- Healing Hands: Father Melvin Doucette
- Healing of Relationships
- How to Keep Your Healing Once you have Received it
- Insomnia and Deliverance
- Jesus Cures a Blind Man at Bethsaida
- Joy and Sorrow
- Let’s Start
- Lust and its Brother Pornography
- Physical Healing
- Power of Healing
- Prisoner of Unforgiveness
- The Healing Power of Jesus
- The High Stakes of Gambling Addiction
- Three Ways of Self-Deliverance
- Ungodly Soul Ties
- Ungodly Superstitious Beliefs
- Your Part
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