Category Archives: Mechanization in Africa

Next Green Revolution 2

The Next Green Revolution

Science prevented the last food crisis. Can it save us again?

 

Africa’s cropland biome occupies ~38% of the photo synthetically active land area of the African continent (~19.8 M km2) and encompasses more than 90% of its rural population living in 54 countries.

Next Green RevolutionRegion of Interest

We must concentrate on the biomes of Africa that include forests and rangelands, but exclude deserts

Next Green Revolution

Overall Region of Interest

A big, risky decision for small holder farmers is what type and how much fertilizer to apply to their crops. There is lot of uncertainty about how the crops will respond, with a risk that the farmers will even lose when they harvest and sell the produce. Testing the soil beforehand and knowing how plants will respond can play an important role in reducing this risk. But the high cost and lack of access to testing services have been major bottlenecks for farmers in developing countries.

Low-Cost Soil AnalysisNext Green Revolution

Similarly, planners in governments, the private sector and non-governmental organizations who are working out what to supply to small holder farmers are also faced with large uncertainties on what types and combinations of inputs to supply and where, in relation to the local soils. For example, a number of agencies in Africa are designing fertilizer blending and liming programs and so need to know how strongly acid soils are and what soil micro nutrients may be limiting in different areas. Existing soil maps do not provide up-to-date information on specific soil properties that are needed to guide such decisions.

New advances in rapid, low-cost soil analytical techniques in the laboratory that simply measure light reflecting from a soil sample are reducing the cost of measuring soil properties. Soil infrared spectroscopy allows a soil sample to be scanned in just 30 seconds and the resulting fingerprint used to predict a number of soil properties based on calibration databases. And this costs just $1 compared with at least $100 using conventional soil testing methods. With the availability of satellite imagery and from space and now unmanned aerial vehicles at ever increasing spatial resolution (250 metres to sub-metre), it is becoming possible to make high resolution soil property maps at low cost.

Next Green Revolution

To successfully close the gap, we’ll need to adopt a variety of innovative strategies. We must produce more crops, while more efficiently using the food we already grow.

What are we to do?

Continue reading Next Green Revolution 2

MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

Here is how we begin our MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION:

 An African Revolution: if agricultural mechanization equipment is sent to an African country, like Ivory Coast, it has a value of $200,000 if it was brand new. The nearly new equipment has a real value of $100,000 hypothetically. The agricultural equipment dealer or farmer working with the dealer receives a tax refund benefit at the rate of the last $1000 owed to the government; say 30% of 100,000 or $30,000 from Living Water MicroFinance Inc., a non-profit company.

Mechanization in Africa

The new owner, Living Water MicroFinance Inc., will sell the equipment in question in Africa and will feel indebted to the previous owner, the equipment dealer or the farmer. This indebtedness will be 50% of the net selling price. This indebtedness will be resolved in our hypothetical example, by the purchase of additional new equipment from the dealer.  

If a farmer were to donate his or her used equipment there would be a large tax refund receipt and a cash credit from a third party, Coop Eau Vivante in Africa to a dealer of his or her choice or some other similar arrangement.

More important there will be a real contribution to poverty and famine in an underdeveloped country. We are talking about increased needed efficiency in the agricultural field, which will lead to more employment as well.

Since the need for this equipment is so high, the equipment will enter duty free and since this equipment will be sent to Africa, copies of bill of lading will be made available to the dealer or farmer. We are presently interested in exporting to Cote d’Ivoire.

bpartner

YOU CAN HELP by being our Partner:

Continue reading MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

THE PLOW VERSUS THE TRACTOR 2

 The PLOW versus the TRACTOR

In order to prepare the soil for planting, tilling or plowing the soil removes weeds and shapes the soil into rows for crop plants.

A light, inexpensive metal plow that is pulled by a donkey or an ox can help overcome this problem. It allow for earlier planting because of high productivity. The plow is made lighter than many plows in other part of the world due to the arid conditions and the fact that it is being pulled by one donkey only or sometimes by a camel.

The kind of plow is an intermediate technology, which has been used for years in the Middle East and Asia. Studies have shown that families that have access to a donkey and a plow can increase their harvests by 500%.

The development of an intermediate technology brings together farming, metalworking and the production of improved harnesses. The metal comes from scrap, which is usually obtained from old vehicles. The blade, for example, would be made from leaf springs from old suspensions. The steel is useful as it can easily be hardened through quenching by a blacksmith to produce a hard wearing surface.

Plow versus tractorPlow versus tractor

One ox on credit, 20 kg of a variety of seed grains and a plow and harvest cost US$200.

Bullock drawn disc harrow: The operator’s seat enables the operator to ride instead of walking, which helps in deeper penetration and reduces drudgery.

Plow versus tractor

Ransome Victory (Moldboard) Plow, which is commonly used throughout Southern Africa, was quickly adopted over earlier, heavier models that required multiple spans (teams) of oxen.

Plow versus tractor
Plow versus tractor

The advantages of the Ransome Victory plow are that it is relatively cheap (US$100–200 requires only a single span of oxen to pull, and in wet soils, can be handled by even a youth.

There are always problems along the way: the lack of high-quality feed during the dry season limited the single ox especially for the first cultivation of the season.

The disadvantages of the Ransome Victory are its relatively shallow draft (20 cm), the fragility of the torsion bar, and the short plowshare, which tends to leave an uneven, smeared furrow in clayey soils unless well-handled. Furthermore, the Ransome Victory plow is nearly unusable in dry soils, limiting its use until after seasonal rains have sufficiently saturated the soil.

The annual plowing of fields without fallowing or sub-soiling (“ripping”) has led to severe losses of topsoil due to surface erosion. Furthermore, the repeated plowing at the same depth has caused the formation of hard pans due to the weight of the land side pushing down on the underlying soil. This hard pan restricts water infiltration, limiting the soil’s ability to absorb and retain water; it also severely restricts root growth of crops, which in turn has a negative impact on crop yield. 

TO PLOW DEEPER WITH A TRACTOR

Continue reading THE PLOW VERSUS THE TRACTOR 2

AFRICA MECHANIZATION 2


MISSION: AFRICA MECHANIZATION 

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export agricultural Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture.

We envision a world that solves the famine and the        drought problem by creating                        Mechanization in Africa.

A NEW PARADIGMParadigm Shift Mechanization Concept Africa

It is the time for a new look at agricultural mechanization in Africa. A paradigm shift is required:  from one of poverty alleviation to investment for economic growth, in which the focus is on sustainable economic growth.

On average, 700-1,850 tractors are used per 1,000 farmers in Europe and Northern America, exceptionally low levels of mechanization persist in many developing countries: a mere 5 tractors are in operation per 1,000 farmers in Africa. 

Mechanization Concept in Africa
Compare 5 tractors with 1,500 to 1,800 tractors per 1000 farmers

The total number of working tractors would have to be about 3.5 million (7 times more) to put Africa on a par with other regions. Agricultural would have to expand by a factor of about ten to approximately 400 000 tractors per year. Such a growth in tractor sales cannot be achieved immediately but could be in, say, 10 or 12 years. This would require urgent action to stimulate the market to attain sales of the order of 100 000 units per year within two or three years. As a comparison, tractor sales in India in 2005–06 were 264,790 units.

There has been a massive devaluation of many African currencies. This leads to very high cost of agricultural machinery which leads to reduced imports of machinery in Africa.

An illustrative quote (from FAO & UNIDO, 2008) helpfully summarizes the way forward: ‘If agricultural mechanization efforts are to succeed in Africa, there is an urgent need for all concerned, be they farmers, supporters, planners or policy makers,to understand and contribute to agricultural mechanization efforts  in Africa across the entire farming system and with a value chain perspective’.

FAO & UNIDO must know and support our project. Please send a link of this to them… Mechanization in Africa 

How can African prosperity get started?

Untitled-2r

Mechanization in Africa

Over 60% of farm power is still provided by people’s muscles, mostly from women, the elderly and children. Afford-ability of Africa mechanization is often beyond the reach of the small holder family. You can make a difference in so many lives.

 Decades of counter-terrorism teaches that the best bulwarks against extremism are states that are prosperous and just. With your support, the middle class will band with the underclass to bring about regime changes.

You can help by expanding access to rich-world markets for African goods, particularly in agriculture and the opportunities for other African industry would also expand.

How does the world approach climate change? Unfathomable amounts of carbon emissions can be soaked up by trees? Your support will assist us in developing Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries in Africa.

carbon-cost10

A young African will move to the city if all he can earn is $10/day. This same African will return to the land because mechanization has changed the whole picture: the farms can now be more productive. Your support will take the pressure off African urbanization, which usually ends in abject poverty or crime in the city.

Designing a Mechanization Strategy in Africa                                        

Continue reading AFRICA MECHANIZATION 2