BEGINNING climate change

CLIMATE CHANGE

Optimism on Climate Change

 In the book, Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future, Johan Norberg points out that humans are a gloomy species. Some 71% of Britons think the world is getting worse; only 5% think it is improving.  It’s been devastating to see inaccuracies and confusion on the subject sometimes perpetuated by the media, especially on the topic of Climate Change. 

Blood and guts and disasters are what make for headlines. Is it any wonder that we feel apprehensive — with so many disasters “all around us”? The media amplify this distortion. Famines and earthquakes all make gripping headlines; “40 million Planes Landed Safely Last Year” does not.

Pessimism has political consequences. A whopping 81% of Donald Trump’s supporters think life has grown worse in the past 50 years.

Sweden in those days was poorer than Sub-Saharan Africa is today. “Why are some people poor?” is the wrong question, argues Mr. Norberg. Poverty is the starting point for all societies. What is astonishing is how fast it has receded. In 1820, 94% of humanity subsisted on less than $2 a day in modern money. That fell to 37% in 1990 and less than 10% in 2015.

As people grow more adept at abstract thought, they find it easier to imagine themselves in other people’s shoes. And there is plenty of evidence that society has grown more tolerant. The main reason why things tend to get better is that knowledge is cumulative and easily shared.

There is still the question of global warming, which is a worry?  Can human ingenuity tame it?

CAN we change? And the answer, fortunately, is now YES!

We’re seeing a continuing sharp, exponential decline in the cost of renewable energy, energy efficiency, batteries and storage  —  and the spread of sustainable agriculture and forestry  —  giving nations around the world a historic opportunity to embrace a sustainable future, based on a low carbon, hyper-efficient economy. 

WILL we change?

In December, 195 nations reached a historic agreement in Paris, which exceeded the highest end of the range of expectations. And the Paris Agreement is just the most recent example of our willingness to act. Much more change is needed, of course, but one of the binding provisions of the Paris Agreement requires five-year transparent reviews of the action plans put forward by every nation, and the first will begin in less than two years. These countries pledge to act to keep global temperature rises to between 1.5 and 2 degrees.

Also, over 1,000 non-state groups, from Tesco and Tata to Aviva and Cisco, have so far signed the Paris Pledge for Action on Climate. This new movement is  really self-preservation.  It begins with the investors. Would you invest in a company that was insensitive to climate change? Company executives know this insensitivity and they are acting accordingly.

Not only do we have to feel hopeful, but we have to speak hopefully because people are motivated by hope.  For example, global investment in renewables is predicted to be $8,000 billion over the next 25 years;

Carbon Offsetting by Planting Trees –                     Is it a realistic Proposition?

The oceans are enormously important. Carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean. If that hadn’t happened, and if the oceans weren’t there, climate change would already be much worse.  When CO2 is released into the atmosphere, about three-quarters of it dissolves into the ocean over a few decade (Acidity).

We must concentrate on the rest of the carbon dioxide emissions, which will only be neutralized by a variety of longer-term geological processes over 250 years.

The only true solution to combat climate change is by tree planting. Ending deforestation, which cause 10% of the problem, will not solve global warming by itself —urgent action is needed to cut the other 90 percent of emissions.

The world is home to over three trillion treeswith almost half of them living in tropical or subtropical forests. There are roughly 400 trees for every human. 12,000 years ago, before the advent of agriculture, Earth had twice as many trees as it does now. (The previous estimate of trees in the world was 400 billion.)

degraded-land7

degraded-land8

 Time to get the calculator and do some sums:

Estimates for the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from “anthropogenic sources” (sources due to man’s activities) – this is mainly from fossil fuel burning – are around 22 billion tons per annum.

The amount of carbon dioxide taken up and held by forest in biomass of the trees is variable, but a figure of 120 tons of carbon per hectare has been taken for the basis of the following calculations. This is in line with the range of similar values for a number of species of forest trees and of Brazilian forests.

120 tonnes of carbon per hectare corresponds to 440 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per hectare of mature forest trees.

Carbon – atomic mass = 12
Carbon dioxide – CO2 – molecular mass – 12 + 16 + 16 = 44

So a mature forest can soak up the equivalent of 440 tons of atmospheric carbon dioxide per hectare in the 50 years it takes to reach maturity – that’s a one-off total – not per year and may take several decades to get there.

In order to deal with currently generated carbon dioxide, an area of forest equivalent to:  22 billion tons divided by 440 tons per hectare – is needed

=50 Million hectares/annum or 500 000 square kilometers/annum

…to be planted with forest and held in perpetuity (not cut down or allowed to revert back to atmospheric carbon dioxide): the entire land area of the size of Spain.

DEGRADED LANDS and BIODIVERSITY 

Mono-cultures of trees are often planted – just one single species over a large area which reduces biodiversity and hence environmental stability. Palm oil producers are grown in forested lands. In order to eliminate the impact of global warming, it would be preferable –no imperative- that these kinds of trees should be planted on degraded lands or on mineral soils instead of peat soils.

The Round table on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is the major certification body for palm oil.  The RSPO provides criteria for “certified sustainable palm oil” (CSPO) and offers that certification.

 

degraded-land

degraded-land2

The problems can arise when trees are planted in order to absorb carbon dioxide. Would it not be preferable to plant productive fruit and nut trees along with a host of other trees, each providing their own benefit such as nitrogen fixing? 

Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries are designed to begin the process of seeding millions of trees in Africa. These trees need to be maintained: they are planted on 1.5 acre farms that are managed by women farmers and their families over their 25 year lifetime.

Enter the Carbon Tax Fund

500 trees/hectare will yield 50 tons of Carbon from branches and weeds or (50 tons x ⅓) 16.7 tons of CO2  emission absorption: each tree absorbs 65.6 lbs of CO2 /year from its biochar.

biochar

On a 1.5 acre farm of 300 trees:

  • There will be 10 tons/year of CO2 emission absorption: at the rate of $15/ton, the Net Present Value (NPV) is $150/year (at the rate of $100/acre).
  • The Carbon Tax Fund can support 300 trees for a total cost of $150/year for a period of 25 years plus an initial $450:
    • There will be 300 trees with a NPV of $0.50: at the rate of $15/ton, the Net Present Value (NPV) is $150/year.
    • Add $1.00/tree for reporting and auditing for 25 years (that’s a one-off total – not per year): $300 to be monitored by Living Water MicroFinance Inc. for 25 years.untitled-7

There is a stipulation that all biomass on the 1.5 acre farm will be converted to biochar every year. The calculations for one acre is $100/year for biochar support of 200 trees and $300 initial support for the NPV of 200 trees ($100) and the reporting and auditing over 25 years ($200).

This Carbon Tax Fund Support will be converted into microfinance assistance. Each $150/farm/year will be recycled nine times for a total of $1,350. Nine times

This fund will be made available to other farmers who need support before the orchards become productive after 18 months.

Untitled-1A2The women farmers and their families maintain this agroforest farms by planting vegetable like yam in between the new tree seedlings. The microfinance loan is due after the harvest.  The original fruit and nut tree seedlings along with nitrogen fixing trees are supplied by Today’s Tall Tree Nursery.

0000Today's-Tall-Tree2The tree nursery funding will be supported by $300 NPV and Biochar charges/acre.  The $80,000 Today’s Tall Tree Nursery will be supported by 267 acres or 106 hectare (0.4 square miles).

MORE DETAILS:

Agroforestry could help solve Climate Change.

 HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

Tree Growth

A Full Scale Aquaponic Tree Nursery in Africa supported by:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
  4. An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
  5. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  6. God’s Loveletters:  Godloveletters.com
  7. Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  8. Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com
    Stage 1     Agricultural Mechanization of Africa                        
    Stage 2   Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund 
    Stage 3   Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives 
    Stage 4   Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
    Stage 5   Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.

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