African Mechanization

THE PLOW VERSUS THE TRACTOR 2

 The PLOW versus the TRACTOR

In order to prepare the soil for planting, tilling or plowing the soil removes weeds and shapes the soil into rows for crop plants.

A light, inexpensive metal plow that is pulled by a donkey or an ox can help overcome this problem. It allow for earlier planting because of high productivity. The plow is made lighter than many plows in other part of the world due to the arid conditions and the fact that it is being pulled by one donkey only or sometimes by a camel.

The kind of plow is an intermediate technology, which has been used for years in the Middle East and Asia. Studies have shown that families that have access to a donkey and a plow can increase their harvests by 500%.

The development of an intermediate technology brings together farming, metalworking and the production of improved harnesses. The metal comes from scrap, which is usually obtained from old vehicles. The blade, for example, would be made from leaf springs from old suspensions. The steel is useful as it can easily be hardened through quenching by a blacksmith to produce a hard wearing surface.

Plow versus tractorPlow versus tractor

One ox on credit, 20 kg of a variety of seed grains and a plow and harvest cost US$200.

Bullock drawn disc harrow: The operator’s seat enables the operator to ride instead of walking, which helps in deeper penetration and reduces drudgery.

Plow versus tractor

Ransome Victory (Moldboard) Plow, which is commonly used throughout Southern Africa, was quickly adopted over earlier, heavier models that required multiple spans (teams) of oxen.

Plow versus tractor
Plow versus tractor

The advantages of the Ransome Victory plow are that it is relatively cheap (US$100–200 requires only a single span of oxen to pull, and in wet soils, can be handled by even a youth.

There are always problems along the way: the lack of high-quality feed during the dry season limited the single ox especially for the first cultivation of the season.

The disadvantages of the Ransome Victory are its relatively shallow draft (20 cm), the fragility of the torsion bar, and the short plowshare, which tends to leave an uneven, smeared furrow in clayey soils unless well-handled. Furthermore, the Ransome Victory plow is nearly unusable in dry soils, limiting its use until after seasonal rains have sufficiently saturated the soil.

The annual plowing of fields without fallowing or sub-soiling (“ripping”) has led to severe losses of topsoil due to surface erosion. Furthermore, the repeated plowing at the same depth has caused the formation of hard pans due to the weight of the land side pushing down on the underlying soil. This hard pan restricts water infiltration, limiting the soil’s ability to absorb and retain water; it also severely restricts root growth of crops, which in turn has a negative impact on crop yield. 

TO PLOW DEEPER WITH A TRACTOR

We can move one step up to the rotary driven disc plows and a 25 hp to 65 hp tractor in Africa: it saves 89% labor and operating time and also results in 80% saving in cost of operation compared to conventional method of plowing by bullock drawn country plow.

Plough9b

Plow versus tractor
Plow versus tractor

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. lowers the cost. 

The nearly new equipment has a real value of $100,000 hypothetically. The agricultural equipment dealer or farmer working with the dealer receives a tax refund benefit at the rate of the last $1000 owed to the government; say 30% of 100,000 or $30,000 from Living Water MicroFinance Inc., a non-profit company.

The new owner, Living Water MicroFinance Inc., will sell the equipment in question in Africa and will feel indebted to the previous owner, the equipment dealer or the farmer. This indebtedness will be 50% of the net selling price. This indebtedness will be resolved in our hypothetical example, by the purchase of additional new equipment from the dealer.  

If a farmer were to donate his or her used equipment there would be a large tax refund receipt and a cash credit from a third party, Coop Eau Vivante in Africa to a dealer of his or her choice or some other similar arrangement.

Second Hand Tractor versus the Plow

Not everyone wants or needs tractors with all the latest technology such as power take off and a GPS to keep those furrows straight.

A typical tractor runs 12,000 hours before it is not economically feasible to continue to repair it. It all depends on maintenance. We look for a paper trail for some of the maintenance and repair work. 

A well-maintained tractor works well for 20 to 30 years, and much longer if it is not used frequently. The service life of used tractors depends less on their age than on the quality of care they receive.

For example, a well maintained Massey-Ferguson MF390 manufactured in 1992 with 6650 hours on the clock is still valued at $13,000 in the United States. Because they are popular, it is fairly easy to obtain replacement parts, as needed. 

 There are hurdles with increased mechanization:

  • Capital cost
  • Loan interest
  • Operating costs
  • Availability of mechanics/skilled labor to operate machines
  • Spare parts availability
  • On-going maintenance – grease bearings,  check fluid levels etc.

 All our used tractors come with essential replacement parts. We don’t want to see 50 tractors in a field because they were supplied without essential working parts.

We can add small two wheel tractors to this list of appropriate technology.

Plough3

A new compact tractor sells for around $10,000.

Compact-Tractor

These types of plows have changed the role of women in farming. Historically, the plow had to be pulled by oxen, but women were not allowed to handle cattle. This meant that the women could no longer work in the fields and that men could take over that job.  It was the women’s work to tend the fields and primarily engage in home production and other activities that occur within the household. In strict Islamic countries, increased commercialization alienates women who are excluded from the markets and from driving tractors.

In Africa the women still grow the food crops and take the children with them.  So, plowing will leave little need for weeding the crop, which is usually the women’s task.

MICRO FINANCE MISSION:  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture using a tractor and a plow.

There are many communities living in places where the land and climate is unforgiving. Growing food to feed families is becoming increasingly difficult, time-consuming and labor-intensive. When the rain comes, the water cannot penetrate the soil: the soil has a hard crust. We suggest higher productivity simply because tilling can be done very quickly  and save weeks of production: we analyze the Plow versus Tractor.

MORE DETAILS:

Agroforestry could help solve Climate Change.

 HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

Tree Growth

 

OUR STRATEGY

Stage 1     Agricultural Mechanization of Africa                        
Stage 2   Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund 
Stage 3   Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives 
Stage 4   Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
Stage 5   Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.

 

IMPORTANT LINKS:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
  4. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  5. Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
  6. Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  7.  Deliverance Is: Deliveranceis.com
  8. God Love Letters: GodLoveLetters.com

     https://twitter.com/roaudet

Christianity and Hinduism Differences

BILLIONS OF CHRISTIANS CAN’ T ALL BE WRONG!

Christianity is not a philosophy, but it is  a relationship with God, your Creator,  in Christ TODAY. It is not knowledge of abstract principles.  

HOW DO WE KNOW THIS?

1. DELIVERANCE?

Some Christian disciples use deliverance to deliver away evil spirits influencing people. These evil spirits cause depression, addictions and illness through all forms of stress. 

2. COMPLETE SENSE OF PEACE?

After you have been delivered from evil influences, you will have a definite physical experience of a complete sense of peace.

3.  HEALING?

Once you experience a physical sense of peace because of deliverance, you know that you will be healed. This helps you build up your faith, which is very crucial: No faith! No healing!

Some Christian disciples have the gift of healing.   Only the Name of Jesus Christ makes healing and deliverance possible.

THE WHOLE FAMILY BENEFITS

In the end, one Christian conversion will benefit the whole family.  The gifts of the Holy Spirit of healing and deliverance will help the whole family. A prayer of deliverance of evil spirits will leave any member of the family with a complete sense of peace immediately. A prayer of healing from a Christian disciple produces 80% healing. The remaining healing comes from continued prayer of praise and thanksgiving until all the healing is complete. This healing comes from the Holy Spirit through the power in the Name of Jesus Christ.  No other god or deity or doctor uses this power. This proves the TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY. 

ASTONISHING PREDICTIONS

God divinely inspired the BIBLE . How do we know? Each of eight accurate predictions  shows a high probability mathematically. The probability of one individual fulfilling eight prophecies have odds of 1 in 10 17  (1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000). Jesus Christ fulfilled all prophecies, therefore the Bible MUST BE TRUE. 

DIVINE OR HUMAN CALIPHS

The Old Testament indicates another 40 astonishing predictions.

CHINA DECEASED RELATIVES

Christianity experiences stunning growth—from approximately 3.8 million adherents in China in 1956 to an estimated 87 to 100 million Christians today.

CHINA AND THE HOLY SPIRIT

Chinese Religion God

AN EXPERIMENT OF GOD’S TOUCH 2

HOW IS JESUS STILL ALIVE TODAY?

Jesus is alive today! He heals today (through His followers) and in many cases it is realized immediately. How else can you explain the explosion of Christianity, the world’s largest religion, on earth: 2.2 billion adherents, nearly a third (31 percent) of all 6.9 billion people on Earth. 

Christians know and feel His Presence; they communicate with Him personally; Christian prayers are always answered.

This author has been given the Gift of Healing only because he is a Christian Lay Missionary, who travels  two to three places every year. On his last trip to Columbia he successfully transferred his Gift to his Spanish translators, who were able to heal as he did. He has healed Muslims to their great surprise.

He also delivers away evil spirits along with their healing. All those who are delivered from evil spirits feel a complete physical  sense of peace.

DREAMS AND VISIONS

God can give a message to those non-Christians to change their heart.  God knows faith will be developed eventually. God will come to you in the form of dreams or visions. So be sensitive to any dreams or visions, when you ask God for it earnestly.

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES 2

PROOF OF HEAVEN 2

Is the BIBLE true? 2

HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED HOW TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN?

god proof

  • Christians don’t shout, “I live a clean life!” Christians whisper “I feel  lost, but now God found me and God forgives me.” 
  • Christians don’t speak with pride. They confess that they stumble and need Christ to be their guide.
  • Christians don’t say,” I’m strong.” They say they try to be strong because they need strength. 
  • Christians don’t brag about success, but they admit that they fail and they need God to clean the mess.
  • Christians don’t claim to be perfect, but God still believes in them.
  • Christians still feel the sting of pain. They have their share of headaches but they still call upon His Name.
  • Christians are not holier than others. They are simple sinners who receive God’s unbelievable Grace.

Christianity on a Table Napkin:

Deliverance EVIL SPIRITS

“If you declare with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.”                                                                                                                                     Romans 10:9

The real Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the Living God. He was send by God to come to the earth in the body of a human being. That was, so that He could suffer in the flesh, and take all our sins upon Himself and die in our place. He rose from the dead and lives to pray for us daily.
He is the Savior – The angel announced to Mary; …and you shall call His name JESUS: for He shall save His people from their sins.     Matthew 1:21  It means He has the power to free us, save us and deliver us from sin. He is merciful and has the power to forgive. He brings good news to the poor, heals the heart-broken, announce freedom to all captives, pardons all prisoners. He comforts mourners. He has healing in His hands.
To receive Jesus as your Savior… SAY:

Lord Jesus, You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God. Please hear me today and help me! I want to receive You as my Lord and Savior. Be Lord of my life!  Lord Jesus, I believe that You died for me and that God raised You from the dead. Forgive me all my sins and take all my sins away. Come into my heart and be my Savior and Lord, and fill me with Your Holy Spirit. Amen
Your life will begin to change in an amazing way. Without expecting  anything, be sensitive to any dreams or visions. 

God the Father will wipe every tear from our eyes, and there shall be no more death or mourning, crying out or pain. We will be like Him, for we will see Him as He is The Holy Spirit will have made all things new. Eternal joy will begin.  “For the Mighty One has done great things for me— holy is His name.”                                                     Luke 1: 49

Are we not like Barabbas who was justly condemned for murder, but saved by the innocent Jesus on the cross? Are we not like the adulterous woman, deserving of death by stoning, to whom Jesus says, “I do not condemn you”?  And Jesus saved them both. In fact, Jesus came to earth specifically to look for and save those who were lost, like you.

“Come now, let us settle the matter,” says the LORD, “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool”.                                       Isaiah 1:18

You may need some counseling with a pastor, priest or competent Christian worker, who will introduce you to a Short Course on Who is Jesus? Start by reading a short biography of Jesus in  the Gospel of Luke. Read several verses before going to bed and read the same verse upon arising.  He will defend you from attacks of the enemy when you ask Him.

Healing and Deliverance                                                 (Ctrl + Click to follow Link)

Please send this document to others who speak different languages. Ask them to click on the TRANSLATION application called, “SPREAD THE WORD TO OTHER COUNTRIES!” at top of the page.

 

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3 thoughts on “THE PLOW VERSUS THE TRACTOR 2”

    1. Financing agricultural mechanization is a challenge.
      Small-holder farmers cannot afford to buy a tractor without financial assistance. To overcome the financial hurdle, the common advice is to organize farmers into cooperative or association and they can purchase the equipment as a group. This approach works, but it is only efficient in the short term.
      One of the major impediments to improving the agricultural productivity in Africa is the financing. Banks are reluctant to finance agricultural businesses because of their high risk and uncertainties. In the past, many African countries had implemented a government-led investment, which failed to achieve the expected results.
      In any financial model, the mechanization strategy should be private sector driven, and farmers should be given the option to make payments towards the purchase of their equipment during the harvest using the rental fees as a portion of their payments.
      In Tanzania, the Cooperative Reform and Modernisation Programme (CRMP) is a programme implemented by the Government to initiate a comprehensive transformation of Cooperatives to become organizations which are member-owned and controlled, competitive, viable, sustainable and with capability of fulfilling members’ economic and social needs.

      The Tanzania Budget includes:
      o Strengthen Farmers Field Schools (FFSs), Junior Farm Field and Life Schools, and Farmers Groups: Establish new farmers field schools in 8 agricultural zones
      o Facilitate equipment leasing for farmers and agro-processors
      o Establish and capitalize the Tanzania Agricultural Development Bank: 500,000 million TShs: (US$23 million)
      o Build capacity of Agricultural Inputs Trust Fund in financing agricultural projects: 16,245 million TShs (US$7.5 million)
      o Promote cultivation of high-value crops
      • Including spices, cashew nuts, macadamia nuts, floriculture, pulses, fruits, vegetables, grapes and production of essential and edible oils
      • Intensify production of agro-industrial crops: Including cotton, tea, coffee, sesame, sisal, sugarcane, tobacco, coconut, sunflower, palms and oil seeds

      The Tanzania Budget also includes support for Sustainable Management of Forest Resources:
      • Provide technical and financial support to develop nurseries for agro forestry
      • Undertake detailed assessment of values and potentials of various indigenous trees and shrubs for agro-forest
      • Identify and promote nitrogen fixing indigenous agro forestry trees and shrubs for restoration of soil fertility and biomass to suit various agro ecological zones
      • Identify, develop and promote strategies for conservation and propagation of indigenous fruit trees to ensure availability for future generations

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