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CONGO’S UNPOPULAR RE-ELECTION

Congo Election

Congo’s Kabila chases an unconstitutional, unpopular re-election

Congo ruling party shows all signs of seeking Kabila third term

KINSHASA (Reuters) – From the sprawling capital Kinshasa to villages deep in the equatorial forests, Congo’s ruling PPRD is in full-on election campaign mode – and President Joseph Kabila’s face is everywhere.

The deadline for declaring candidates for Democratic Republic of Congo’s scheduled Dec. 23 poll is just one month away, and Kabila, 46, is officially not allowed to run again: August 8, 2018

NO SIGN OF A SUCCESSOR

But his bearded portrait smiles down from billboards and T-shirts being printed by his People’s Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD), while there is no sign of a successor.

Kabila intends to bypass the constitution and run for a third term. Any such move would likely ignite chaos across the vast, mineral-rich country, which has never seen a peaceful change of power in the 58 years since independence from Belgium.

Kabila is unpopular in the capital Kinshasa and many parts of the country. A rare poll released in March showed that eight in 10 Congolese have an unfavorable opinion of him. Scores have died in protests since he refused to step down when his mandate expired 18 months ago.

Congo Election

Militias have proliferated, killing and displacing villagers, kidnapping foreigners and shutting down eco-tourist spots. The violence has even hit mining operations in Africa’s top copper producer and the world’s leading miner of cobalt.

WHAT LEGAL BASIS?

Long before the changes, the court had ruled when Kabila’s mandate expired in 2016 that he could stay on until the poll.  What poll? Another option for Kabila is to hold a referendum, as his allies have sometimes suggested and as the presidents of neighboring Rwanda and Congo Republic did.

Resistance could come from Congo’s Catholic church, which has slowly transformed from a mediator for peace to lightning rod for dissatisfaction with Kabila: the bishops will never support” a Kabila third term.

Congo Election

It would also set Congo on a collision course with Western powers and its neighbors – both of which have a history of meddling in its affairs. Wars between 1996 and 2003 sucked in nine African armies and killed millions.

AFRICA FUTURE AND OUR MISSION:  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture. A Future in Africa depends on work like this.

A Future in Africa

Tall-Trees2 The best time to plant NUT TREES was 20 years ago

There is no doubt that Africa is well braced to become the Future Food Basket of the World.

Since the year 2000, there have been 27 major wars on the planet and 90% of these wars were civil wars, not because of ethnic diversity but because of a declining economy along with a lot of uneducated and unemployed teenagers. This happened despite the abundance of commodities. This resulted in a substantial brain drain of a knowledge-based world. Uganda use to be called the Switzerland of Africa before Idi Amin began the country’s biggest brain drain.

The countries that get rich are the ones who attract great minds or those countries that educate their own. Most of Africa does not, so it has little hope of accomplishing anything beyond survival. Africa has become irrelevant in the knowledge economy. So the developed economies have generally abandoned many of these countries to their fate: failing or falling apart.

Most of the inhabitants of Africa, even South African, Nigeria and Democratic Republic of Congo with all their resources have become poorer today that they were twenty years ago. In the last 35 years since 1970, the richest countries grew by 2%, while the poorest third countries did not grow at all. Many African countries either don’t get it or they simply can’t keep up. They get distracted by looking in their rear view mirror of culture and nationalism.

Land and people have become an instrument to be used and controlled.  Large tracks of land are being purchased at bargain basement prices by large international companies. This is exactly the opposite of what should happen: land and people should be the main means of generating wealth.

African countries need governments that provide economic and political stability.  A government’s job is to attract and keep smart and entrepreneurial people and to encourage the launching on new companies in the country. If what it really counts is having smart people, then they have to be willing to share one’s  time and space in order to interact with them. They need to discover how this can be done — not why it can’t be done. These new companies will demand a “hands-off” from bribery and collusion.

We are living in an explosive age of knowledge because of the Internet and Google. The rules are different in a knowledge economy. If you cannot use new-found knowledge and equity, you will remain uncompetitive. A measure of knowledge intensity is a simple formula: Value-Added Exports/Commodity Exports. If the ratio is less than one, the country will remain vulnerable to commodity cycles.

The basic industry of the planet is agribusiness. Most of humanity is living from growing, transforming, distributing and selling food. Those who are not market savvy or technologically-literate in agriculture are going to have a hard time.

The good news is that history can change faster than one can expect. It all depends on a country’s ability to adapt and adopt an ethical, political and economic challenge and  to use the knowledge
wisely.  Africa is well braced to become the Future Food Basket of the World.Untitled-3

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. proposes to begin important changes: Continue reading CONGO’S UNPOPULAR RE-ELECTION

WATER RESOURCES IN HAITI SOLVED 2

Water resources in Haiti are a major concern.

The lack of adequate safe (potable) water supplies for basic human needs is a significant problem throughout Haiti, although surface and ground water resources are abundant. This situation leads to increased competition for limited resources. Several of the main reasons for this situation are:

  • uneven rainfall distribution;
  • degradation of the watersheds caused by deforestation;
  • rapid growth in urban areas with demand beyond capacity;
  • poor distribution networks;
  • poor water resources management;
  • no single agency responsible for management of water ;
  • lack of adequate data needed to make informed decisions;
  • poor irrigation supply network leading to underdevelopment; 
  • lack of wastewater  treatment and solid waste disposal.

Most of the streams are relatively small and less than 100 kilometers long. With each passing year, the rivers and streams flow more like torrents and less like stable permanent rivers. The largest natural lake in the country is Étang Saumâtre has no outlet, and contains brackish water. Many of the smaller natural lakes that exist throughout the country also contain brackish water. 

ABJECT POVERTY

About 54 percent of the population lives in abject poverty. Based on 1997 estimates, the unemployment rate in a work force of approximately 3.6 million is about 38 percent.

Only 61.7% of the population have jobs but these are the working poor as many make only $3.10 per day. Women are least likely to go to school or have a job. Violence against women is common with 22.8% of women reporting abuse – what of the abuse that goes unreported? Of course the issue of “restavek” children or child slavery persists despite national and international laws. It is a socially accepted norm to sell children ages 5-15 and to make then work for no pay, to deny them the opportunity to attend school and results in children being abused both physically and sexually.

In Cite Soleil – the largest slum in Haiti is 3 square miles and has about 200-300,000 people. Most are unemployed and the vast majority are children. In Haiti 65% of the people are under 25 years old. The children live in extreme hunger and are exposed to gang violence, high risk for HIV/AIDS, no opportunity for an education, no sewer system and rat infestations. On average – nine people live in one shack.

Most people who live in the slums state their biggest fear is violence – especially for women and girls (Haugen and Boutros, 2014). In the slums, this problem is rampant; acts of violence are intentionally hidden, legal protection is non-existent and violence keeps the poor from ever escaping poverty.

Port-au-Prince

Water supply for Port-au-Prince, the most populated area in Haiti, is poor. In 1995 only about 35 percent of the nearly 2.5 million inhabitants had access to the water system. Most receive water only twice a week. The lack of service is attributed to

  • system losses associated with the age of the distribution system and theft of service, estimated at 60 percent;
  •  interruptions in the power supply to the wells and pumps; and
  •  contamination of water sources.

Over the past 10 years, heavy migration from rural areas to towns and cities has seriously affected the housing situation. Epidemics including malaria, typhoid, chronic diarrhea, and intestinal infections are caused by water contaminated by rubbish and fecal matter. Infants are especially vulnerable to these diseases, accounting for the death of up to one-third of all children before the age of five.

The Port-au-Prince municipal water system supplies water to about one-third of the population. The main sources of water for the municipal water system are 18 springs in the hills south of the city. These sources are facing several major problems that are decreasing the quality and quantity of the water entering the municipal water system. All of the springs are reported to be contaminated by biological contamination from human and solid wastes with a couple of the springs being too polluted to be used.

Small Surface Impoundments

There are difficulties of accessing the mountainous areas. In certain areas of the country, the construction of small impoundments for capturing water for water supply should be considered. These impoundments should be considered only in areas where the surface water is not heavily polluted. Design of these impoundments will not be difficult, and construction techniques will be very similar to local construction techniques.

Northern and windward slopes of mountainous areas of Dominican Republic commonly receive two to three times as much precipitation as leeward slopes of Haiti.(This accounts for the seasonal drought-like conditions of Haiti.)  Here lies the solution to our problem.

Based on the vortex or a physical phenomena of the Spiral:

 

HUG Spiraling Pipeline

How much money to solve the water crisis?

Most people are taking a serious look at the numbers within the context of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) to “reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015.”

The World Bank offers a range of cost estimates to reach MDG goals. They estimate the cost of reaching “basic levels of coverage…in water and sanitation” to be $9 billion at the low end, and $30 billion a year for “achieving universal coverage” for water and sanitation.

The United Nations Development Program estimates the cost of meeting the MGD to be about $10 billion a year.”

A Case Study

To give you an idea of the extent of present project prices, in South Dakota, Minnesota, and Iowa, construction on a 400-mile water pipeline is about to be underway. The Lewis and Clark Rural Water System consists of five reservoirs and seven pump stations, supplying and delivering over 27.2 million gallons of water per day (1.2 m3/s) to communities within the tri-state area. The water will be extracted from a series of wells along the Missouri River and will supply over 200,000 people (at $1,800 each) with high quality drinking water. The cost of this project is estimated at about $360 million and will take 10 to 12 years to complete.

Water Transfer Privatization has Failed.

Water shortages are caused by lack of political will, institutional obstruction, greed, corruption and chains from the past.

Millions of people could have to wait years for clean water as some of the world’s largest companies pull out of developing countries because of growing doubts about privatization projects, a major UN report reveals today.

Last week Suez, one of the world’s largest water companies, said that it was now impossible for it to work in Latin America.  One of the chief executive of Suez Environment, which has major contracts in Argentina, Bolivia and Haiti, said: “We are not a political organization, but how can we do our job if the political system in countries changes its mind so often?

The world’s largest water companies are not solving the water crisis, so what should we do?

Not Privatization of Water: Public-Private Partnerships

But where does the fuel or profit come from?  It comes from Public-Private Partnerships, which introduces a meaningful private sector involvement. This can be done in at least two of the following three structural elements: design, build,  or operate, one of which must include operate. 

 Living Water Is Corporation will initiate and bring together private financing  with its associate partners.

LWI HUG

Once completed, the underdeveloped country will then lease the facility back to the private partner under a long-term lease.  The private partner involved in the design and construction of the infrastructure has an opportunity to earn a reasonable 10% to 15% real pre-tax equity return. That means the underdeveloped country shares in the other 85% to  90%.

How different will the HUG technology be? 

Presently,  excess fresh water is wasted as it flows into the ocean. Present technology of water transfer is limited to 80 km between pumping stations.  No one has considered the possibility of transferring fresh water through the ocean over a distance of ten times that limitation of 80 km. One can float these pipelines at a depth of 30 meters in an ocean environment, which allows one country to sell its excess water to another country over a long distance. 

WATER RESOURCES IN HAITI SOLVED

This fresh water pipeline is extruded directly into the ocean from a barge or from a sea shore without any welding required.

Flexible HUG Fresh Water Pipeline

 

WATER RESOURCES IN HAITI SOLVED

Water Shortages: New Patented Pipelines, SPIRAL*, a Solution?

A little known secret is that water never wants to flow in a straight line as in the case of present pipelines.  Instead, the molecules of water wants to align itself in a vortex not unlike how the water leaves your bathtub — in a whirlpool configuration. 

So the new technology simply creates an environment where the water flows in a corkscrew fashion, but at four times the speed and with little or no friction. The sides of the pipeline have similar striations as found in the rifling contours inside the barrel of a rifle.

fibonacci cylinder8

HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION

New Trees are the only solution to soaking up Carbon Dioxide:

Tree Growth

OUR STRATEGY

Stage 1     Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund 
Stage 2  Agricultural Mechanization 
Stage 3   Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives 
Stage 4   Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
Stage 5   Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.

IMPORTANT LINKS:

  1. A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
  2. An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
  3. A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
  4. The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
  5. Living Water Micro Finance: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
  6. Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
  7.  Deliverance Is: Deliveranceis.com
  8. God Love Letters: GodLoveLetters.com

     https://twitter.com/roaudet

Christianity and Hinduism Differences

BILLIONS OF CHRISTIANS CAN’ T ALL BE WRONG!

Christianity is not a philosophy, but it is  a relationship with God, your Creator,  in Christ TODAY. It is not knowledge of abstract principles.  

HOW DO WE KNOW THIS?

1. DELIVERANCE?

Some Christian disciples use deliverance to deliver away evil spirits influencing people. These evil spirits cause depression, addictions and illness through all forms of stress. 

2. COMPLETE SENSE OF PEACE?

After you have been delivered from evil influences, you will have a definite physical experience of a complete sense of peace.

3.  HEALING?

Once you experience a physical sense of peace because of deliverance, you know that you will be healed. This helps you build up your faith, which is very crucial: No faith! No healing!

Some Christian disciples have the gift of healing.   Only the Name of Jesus Christ makes healing and deliverance possible.

THE WHOLE FAMILY BENEFITS

In the end, one Christian conversion will benefit the whole family.  The gifts of the Holy Spirit of healing and deliverance will help the whole family. A prayer of deliverance of evil spirits will leave any member of the family with a complete sense of peace immediately. A prayer of healing from a Christian disciple produces 80% healing. The remaining healing comes from continued prayer of praise and thanksgiving until all the healing is complete. This healing comes from the Holy Spirit through the power in the Name of Jesus Christ.  No other god or deity or doctor uses this power. This proves the TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY. 

ASTONISHING PREDICTIONS

God divinely inspired the BIBLE . How do we know? Each of eight accurate predictions  shows a high probability mathematically. The probability of one individual fulfilling eight prophecies have odds of 1 in 10 17  (1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000). Jesus Christ fulfilled all prophecies, therefore the Bible MUST BE TRUE. 

DIVINE OR HUMAN CALIPHS

The Old Testament indicates another 40 astonishing predictions.

CHINA DECEASED RELATIVES

Christianity experiences stunning growth—from approximately 3.8 million adherents in China in 1956 to an estimated 87 to 100 million Christians today.

CHINA AND THE HOLY SPIRIT

Chinese Religion God

AN EXPERIMENT OF GOD’S TOUCH 2

HOW IS JESUS STILL ALIVE TODAY?

Jesus is alive today! He heals today (through His followers) and in many cases it is realized immediately. How else can you explain the explosion of Christianity, the world’s largest religion, on earth: 2.2 billion adherents, nearly a third (31 percent) of all 6.9 billion people on Earth. 

Christians know and feel His Presence; they communicate with Him personally; Christian prayers are always answered.

This author has been given the Gift of Healing only because he is a Christian Lay Missionary, who travels  two to three places every year. On his last trip to Columbia he successfully transferred his Gift to his Spanish translators, who were able to heal as he did. He has healed Muslims to their great surprise.

He also delivers away evil spirits along with their healing. All those who are delivered from evil spirits feel a complete physical  sense of peace.

DREAMS AND VISIONS

God can give a message to those non-Christians to change their heart.  God knows faith will be developed eventually. God will come to you in the form of dreams or visions. So be sensitive to any dreams or visions, when you ask God for it earnestly.

NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES 2

PROOF OF HEAVEN 2

Is the BIBLE true? 2

HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED HOW TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN?

god proof

Continue reading WATER RESOURCES IN HAITI SOLVED 2

THE CARBON GENIE 2

Global Change and Politics

It’s hard to get the general public to grasp the vast size of our carbon problem, that we will not only have to stop emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere BUT ALSO find a way to pull vast amounts of CO2 already in the atmosphere and put the carbon genie back in the bottle.

Pick a reason for forgetting about our grandchildren who will all be living in a new world of Global Change: Ignorance; Greed; Denial; Tribalism (following the group thinking); Short-term Thinking.

Carbon GenieAt least half of our wise leaders don’t even see our carbon emissions as a serious problem. Very few leaders will support any change because no-one in power wants what would disrupt the cosy status quo.

Here are the facts: the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that a massive amount of CO2 removal will be required this century — at least 500 billion metric tons pulled back out of the air — if we are to avoid the worst of global warming. 

There is no current magical technology to absorb all the harmful CO2 in our atmosphere. But there’s worse news. There are almost no business cases for carbon removal right now. In other words, it still costs nothing to spew CO2 into the sky, so people have no financial incentive to stop dumping, let alone pay to clean up the air.  At the very least that we can do now is to require a price to be put on CO2, making it more expensive to emit.

 

Nature is our untapped solution. Tropical forests are incredibly effective at storing carbon – providing up to 30% of the solution towards climate change. Despite this, nature-based solutions only receive 2% of all funding devoted to climate solutions.

Carbon Genie

What we need is a Marshall-style construction programs, and an acknowledgment that we have to escape failed paradigms. 

We don’t have the luxury of a lot of time: the best science says we have less than 10 years to reduce carbon emissions by at least 90% if we expect civilization to deal with the possibility of extreme global warming. 

Carbon Genie

The irony is that it will take far more funds to recover from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, if we decide to wait to act. The cost and consequences of inaction are too high to risk.

Hopefully, it will not take a climate catastrophe to motivate such action, such as the drowning of some coastal city like New Orleans.

What are we to do?

Continue reading THE CARBON GENIE 2

Unstable Weather 2

Phenomena of Unstable Weather

HEAT WAVES

The deadly weather phenomena, heat wave, is a long period of hot unstable weather. Heat waves have increased in frequency and duration in recent years and will continue to do so.

Unstable Weather

Carbon Tax is not Enough!

Carbon should not flow unpriced into the atmosphere, any more than you should be allowed to toss your garbage in the street. A rising carbon tax would discourage carbon emissions in every single economic transaction, every day of the year. 

Once one major country or region adopts carbon dividends with border carbon adjustments, other countries are compelled to follow suit [to prevent paying border adjustments to countries with carbon taxes]. One by one the dominoes fall.

Since every action of a modern life involves using fossil fuel, the only way to get enough change is to send a price signal through the matrix, so that everyone from investors to car buyers to milk-drinkers will find their behavior changing automatically. Carbon pricing is also one of the tools clean tech entrepreneurs cite as key to supporting innovation.

Carbon pricing plans now cover about 12 percent of the world’s emissions — have been far from earth-shaking.  At best, a carbon tax is one arrow in a quiver full of other arrows we’re going to need to let loose in a volley.

Unstable Weather

Bill McKibben’s “Step It Up!” campaign to stop global warming.

Step It Up, a nationwide campaign to combat global warming, drew thousands of Americans concerned about climate change. Holding 1,400 events around the nation, participants in National Day of Climate Action got creative. In lower Manhattan, protesters formed a line at the place where rising sea levels are predicted to reach. But that was ten years ago. Where is this model now?

Unstable Weather

If there is a model within American memory of what must be done, it is the civil rights revolution of the 1960s.

 Will FORESTATION occur rapidly enough to avert the worst effects of a warming world? 

Unstable Weather

The 2020 gap is, according to a recent United Nations Environment Program report, the difference between global emission levels consistent with the 2°C and emission expected if country commitments are implemented. “Global emissions should not be higher than 44 Gt CO2. However the range of expected global emissions (median estimates) from the pledge cases is 52 – 54 Gt CO2 in 2020. The gap in 2020 is therefore 8 – 10 Gt CO2.”  This gap can be CLOSED by FORESTATION.

Unstable Climate

Tropical forests are incredibly effective at storing carbon – providing up to 30% of the solution towards climate change. It has been estimated that 8 – 10 Gt CO2 could be stored in tropical plantations.

Despite this, nature-based solutions only receive 2% of all funding devoted to climate solutions.

Politicians are completely overwhelmed by the sheer complexity, size and number of crises in the world at present. Politicians should not be lurching from crisis to crisis like a drunk. They lack the leadership that Winston Churchill brought to the Second World War.

Unstable Weather

The Copenhagen Accord commits developed countries to the goal of sending $100 billion per year to developing countries in assistance for climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation through 2020. If ten per cent of this went to African farmers this would be around a micro finance support of $800 per farming household per year, which could provide a powerful incentive to change.

There was also a collective commitment by developed countries for $30 billion in “new and additional” resources in 2010-2012 to help developing countries reduce emissions, preserve forests, and adapt to climate change; and a goal of mobilizing $100 billion a year in public and private finance by 2020 to address developing county needs.

Aside from saving the planet, Are Tropical Nurseries a Good Investment?

YES!

Continue reading Unstable Weather 2

SUBSISTENCE FARMERS in AFRICA 2

 SUBSISTENCE FARMERS NEED HOPE
Subsistence Farmers

Consider the livelihoods of the tens of millions of vulnerable subsistence small-holder farmers around the world. In 20 to 25 years we will get to a point in some places that either it will be too hot, too dry, too wet, or too cold for the crops we are planting and you, which will be incredibly disruptive at best.

Over the last two decades, either early or late on set of rainy seasons, unexpected rainfall, declining rainfall, and extreme day and night temperature are common.

According to The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 75% of the world’s 1.2 billion poor (defined as consuming less than one purchasing-power adjusted dollar per day) live and work in rural areas. 50% of the developing-country rural population were smallholders (farming 3 ha or less of crop land), and ≈25% were landless. The proportion of smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa was higher at 73%. 

Environmental degradation in such tropical dry land areas is widespread, irreversible or appropriately referred to as “desertification”. All this, and other stressors, are seen as contributing to an increased vulnerability to drought, which in turn feeds back in to environmental degradation and conflict. There will be eventual impacts on human development indicators such as health and education.

There is a bright side: increasingly unstable weather in recent years has left many farmers more willing to try new ideas. Many are now open to adapting of using practices like crop diversification, planting date adjustment, soil and water conservation and management, increasing the intensity of input use, integrating crop with livestock and rabbits, and tree planting. Subsistence Farmers

  • ·         Small-holder farmers can shift to irrigated farming in the face of climate variability.
  • ·         Small-holder farmers can hold some wealth in bank accounts, and others use micro finance credit to expand.
  • ·         Small-holder farmers can use supplementary feed for livestock, purchased or lopped from trees in their orchards.
  • ·         Small-holder farmers can engage in rabbit accumulation as a rational form of insurance against drought. 

 FOOD AID: EARLY SOLUTIONS NOW

Why in a “world of plenty” are 20 million people face famine? Continue reading SUBSISTENCE FARMERS in AFRICA 2

Reforesting the Tropics 2

Saving Humanity: Reforest the Tropics

Buying Time to develop alternative technologiesReforesting the Tropics

Planting trees remains one of the most cost-effective means of drawing excess CO2 from the atmosphere. Therefore, reforesting the tropics will act as carbon sinks, alleviating the greenhouse effect. There are millions of acres of tropical pastures available. When given proper care, orchard tropical trees bear fruit up to 50 years or more.

Reforesting the TropicsPLANT MORE TREES around the world — because… trees are carbon storage (sequestration) experts.

The United States has cut down over 50% of its original forests in the last 400 years, which would have absorbed 50% of its carbon emissions. Once carbon dioxide goes into the atmosphere it stays there for a long time. About 33% continues to cause damage after 100 years.

 It is estimated by the U.S. Forest Service that all the forests in the United States, combined, sequestered approximately 309 million tons of carbon each year from 1952 – 1992, offsetting approximately 25 percent of human-caused emissions of carbon during that period in the United States.

The world’s forests remove over one quarter (27%) of current annual human carbon emissions from the atmosphere each year, the equivalent of about 2.4 billion tons of carbon according to the latest published scientific research.

Reforesting the TropicsThe tropical zones of the world seem particularly attractive for forestation because of the high rates of productivity that can potentially be attained there, and because there appear to be large areas of land that would benefit from tree planting.

Reforesting the Tropics

TREE MATH

Young trees absorb CO2 at a rate of 13 pounds per tree each year. Trees reach their most productive stage of carbon storage at about 10 years at which point they are estimated to absorb 48 pounds of CO2 per year and one acre of trees absorbs 2.6 tons of CO2 every year.

 For every ton of new-wood growth, about 1.5 tons of CO2 are removed from the air and 1.07 tons of life-giving oxygen is produced.

POSITIVE GROWTH OF TREES IN THE TROPICS

Borial zone trees absorb 0.5 Pg C/yr compared to Temperate zone trees at 0.7 while tropical trees grow at the rate of 1.3 or 185% more efficiently year-round than trees in a temperate zone

Younger and faster growing orchards generally have higher annual sequestration rates and they are given higher personal care of proper fertilizer and water: add a further 25% increase. We conclude there is an additional (185% + 25%) or 210% increase in the value of CO2 absorption.

Reforesting the TropicsThis map shows solar-induced fluorescence, a plant process that occurs during photosynthesis, from Aug. through Oct. 2014 as measured by NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2. This period is springtime in the Southern Hemisphere and fall in the Northern Hemisphere. Photosynthesis is highest over the tropical forests of the Southern Hemisphere but still occurs in much of the U.S. Grain Belt. The northern forests have shut down for the winter.

 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia), CSIRO forests researcher Dr Canadell estimate that tropical forest re-growth is removing an average of 1.6 billion tons of carbon per year. Combining the uptake by established and forest re-growth plus emissions from deforestation, the world’s forests have a net effect on atmospheric CO2 equivalent to the removal of 1.1 billion tons of carbon every year. Reforesting the TropicsReforesting the Tropics

In terms of cutting emissions a 53% reduction in 2010 emissions is equal to almost 20 Gt of CO2 emissions. For some perspective, global emissions from coal fired electricity generation were about 9 Gt CO2 in 2010.

Reforesting the TropicsThe larger predictions from climate models are due to the fact that, within these models, the more important greenhouse substances, water vapor and clouds, act to greatly amplify whatever CO2 does. This is referred to as a positive feedback. It means that increases in surface temperature are accompanied by reductions in the net outgoing radiation – thus enhancing the greenhouse warming. … Satellite observations of the earth’s radiation budget verify this fact.

VALUE OF TROPICAL TREES

Moisture created by the rain forests travel around the world. America’s Midwest is affected by the forests in the Congo which is roughly a distance of 6000 miles. Moisture from the Amazon falls as far away as Texas.

The Benefits of Tropical Trees:

Continue reading Reforesting the Tropics 2

MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

Here is how we begin our MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION:

 An African Revolution: if agricultural mechanization equipment is sent to an African country, like Ivory Coast, it has a value of $200,000 if it was brand new. The nearly new equipment has a real value of $100,000 hypothetically. The agricultural equipment dealer or farmer working with the dealer receives a tax refund benefit at the rate of the last $1000 owed to the government; say 30% of 100,000 or $30,000 from Living Water MicroFinance Inc., a non-profit company.

Mechanization in Africa

The new owner, Living Water MicroFinance Inc., will sell the equipment in question in Africa and will feel indebted to the previous owner, the equipment dealer or the farmer. This indebtedness will be 50% of the net selling price. This indebtedness will be resolved in our hypothetical example, by the purchase of additional new equipment from the dealer.  

If a farmer were to donate his or her used equipment there would be a large tax refund receipt and a cash credit from a third party, Coop Eau Vivante in Africa to a dealer of his or her choice or some other similar arrangement.

More important there will be a real contribution to poverty and famine in an underdeveloped country. We are talking about increased needed efficiency in the agricultural field, which will lead to more employment as well.

Since the need for this equipment is so high, the equipment will enter duty free and since this equipment will be sent to Africa, copies of bill of lading will be made available to the dealer or farmer. We are presently interested in exporting to Cote d’Ivoire.

bpartner

YOU CAN HELP by being our Partner:

Continue reading MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

The Rabbit Fish Farm 2

THE RABBIT COLONY & OUR MISSION 

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization for a more productive Rabbit Colony Farm.

1. Rabbit Colony Farm

Basics: land space needed is about 10 m² per breeding doe. Weaned rabbits are removed from mother and placed into separate enclosure(s). There are various options and methods for creating the “barrier”.

2. Rural Community:

Basics: a unit is a rabbit cage for 2 breeding does (1 m 2 or more in size) in a family backyard. A family can have more than one unit.

Option 1: weaned rabbits is sold to or exchanged for an adult rabbit at the rabbit farm

Option 2: family who wishes to keep weaned rabbits until they are 2 kg in weight can still sell to rabbit farm that helps in marketing.

The goal is to build a rabbit colony farm of 1 acre (4046 m²or 43,560 ft² ) and to contain about 1000 rabbits (asset value of 200,000 Ksh). One will have a 10 m wide canal surround it to serve as a physical barrier and to grow fish; instead of constructing a fence that extends 2 ft underground and at least 3 ft (1 m) high. The fish “canal” will also yield an income (wire fencing don’t).

In a free range rabbit keeping one must activate a self-catching system (otherwise you have to shoot them), one must keep the density of rabbit very low otherwise diseases will be a problem. Broilers, exceeding bucks and old does must be collected regularly and sent to the market. Greedy farmers tend to increase the number of rabbits quickly and lose the lot of them at the end.
There will be a need for a structure with indoor enclosures with outdoor “runs” to keep rabbits for a few days to prepare for an order for meat. For this there will have a multi-purpose building/workshop outside the “restricted” area (i.e. the 1 acre colony and the fish canal that borders it).

Since costs of construction of cages is the main hurdle, one approach is that weaned rabbits are delivered to the Rabbit Farm in exchange for adult rabbits. This way each family only needs to have only one cage and they can even avoid keeping a male adult. There are other benefits from their partnership with the Rabbit Farm, which will help to slaughter and market them.

It would be wise to build a proper peripheral fence. This is essential to avoid conflicts (people/thefts, owners of animals/predators). Eventually it needs to be done as the food situation becomes worse in the future.

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It is amazing at the rate at which these rabbits give birth: Continue reading The Rabbit Fish Farm 2

Living Water Aquaponics Farm 2

AQUAPONIC FARM & OUR MISSION 

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization for a more productive Aquaponics Farm.

The Aquaponic Garden Farm

Generally, seeds sprout up seemingly overnight and then their growth is incredible. We use a combination of methods to start seeds and each method results in healthy gorgeous plants.  

Lettuce was found to grow well under 50% shade cover from a shade cloth. The raceways can be covered with shade cloth. Other varieties of lettuce such as Manoa lettuce or romaine lettuce were found to grow well; kai choi and bok choy (Brassica juncea) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) have also done well. Other farmers grow beets, cucumber, tomatoes, blueberries, strawberries, and watercress.

One can grow a variety of organic seeds in each of these categories in this farm:

  • Basil
  • Green Peppers
  • Swiss Chard
  • Cucumbers
  • Over 100 varieties of Lettuce
  • Jalapeño Peppers
  • Dozens of varieties of tomatoes
  • India Mustard
  • Chinese Cabbage
  • Long Green Beans
  • Dozens of varieties of Asian greens
  • Pak Choi
  • Kale
  • Eggplant
  • A variety of herbs

Since plants don’t have to compete for water in aquaponics gardens, they may be planted quite densely.   One can use cutting from herbs, tomatoes, and the base of a celery stalk.

An aquaponic system can help to teach kids about how plants and fish grow, and to teach them about the ecological interactions that are occurring between the fish, the plants and their environment.

Untitled-9cSoil cultivation is time consuming and labor intensive, although
productive.

The Aquaponics Farm

Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day.

Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime…But why does the man have no fish? Not just through charitable funds, but we engender a genuine partnership with the oppressed. We develop Leadership Skills.

What should a community do with its unused land?

  1. The concept of an Agro forestry farm allows farmers to support themselves with crops while the trees of an orchard eventually become productive between 3 to 5 years. Net Present Value (NPV) of a tree is $1.49. (100 trees in 1/2 acre): $149
  2. Carbon Tax Funds will make a difference not just for the life of one person, but to an entire global community. Carbon sequestration of trees is the only solution to soak up excess carbon dioxide in the world: $1.49/tree
  3. Micro forestry enables communities of farm families to accomplish what none could accomplish by working alone. Over ten years, a woman farmer earns more than $5,600 from a half acre of trees and one acre of short-term crops.
  4. The Colony Rabbit Farm does the marketing and slaughtering: a two-month-old rabbit for breeding fetches at least 2,500 Ksh. On average 200 kits/month will be traded for 50 adult rabbits from the farm and the families return home with them or sell them to the farm at about 180 Ksh each: 36,000 Ksh
  5. The landlord earns fees for leasing his or her unused land with an offer to purchase.
  6. The women farmers and their families in groups of five (non-related) have access to micro loans and the long term sublease of their land.
  7. The nutrient-rich water generated by fish farming is used to fertilize nearby gardens and trees while producing 1,500 kg of fish per year.
  8. An irrigation/micro hydro system near flowing water without a dam in remote areas of underdeveloped countries is the second phase of our project: 780 Kw for 100,000 African households

Living Water Aquaponics Farm

How we can Grow 10 Times the Food in Half the Time

Continue reading Living Water Aquaponics Farm 2

THE PLOW VERSUS THE TRACTOR 2

 The PLOW versus the TRACTOR

In order to prepare the soil for planting, tilling or plowing the soil removes weeds and shapes the soil into rows for crop plants.

A light, inexpensive metal plow that is pulled by a donkey or an ox can help overcome this problem. It allow for earlier planting because of high productivity. The plow is made lighter than many plows in other part of the world due to the arid conditions and the fact that it is being pulled by one donkey only or sometimes by a camel.

The kind of plow is an intermediate technology, which has been used for years in the Middle East and Asia. Studies have shown that families that have access to a donkey and a plow can increase their harvests by 500%.

The development of an intermediate technology brings together farming, metalworking and the production of improved harnesses. The metal comes from scrap, which is usually obtained from old vehicles. The blade, for example, would be made from leaf springs from old suspensions. The steel is useful as it can easily be hardened through quenching by a blacksmith to produce a hard wearing surface.

Plow versus tractorPlow versus tractor

One ox on credit, 20 kg of a variety of seed grains and a plow and harvest cost US$200.

Bullock drawn disc harrow: The operator’s seat enables the operator to ride instead of walking, which helps in deeper penetration and reduces drudgery.

Plow versus tractor

Ransome Victory (Moldboard) Plow, which is commonly used throughout Southern Africa, was quickly adopted over earlier, heavier models that required multiple spans (teams) of oxen.

Plow versus tractor
Plow versus tractor

The advantages of the Ransome Victory plow are that it is relatively cheap (US$100–200 requires only a single span of oxen to pull, and in wet soils, can be handled by even a youth.

There are always problems along the way: the lack of high-quality feed during the dry season limited the single ox especially for the first cultivation of the season.

The disadvantages of the Ransome Victory are its relatively shallow draft (20 cm), the fragility of the torsion bar, and the short plowshare, which tends to leave an uneven, smeared furrow in clayey soils unless well-handled. Furthermore, the Ransome Victory plow is nearly unusable in dry soils, limiting its use until after seasonal rains have sufficiently saturated the soil.

The annual plowing of fields without fallowing or sub-soiling (“ripping”) has led to severe losses of topsoil due to surface erosion. Furthermore, the repeated plowing at the same depth has caused the formation of hard pans due to the weight of the land side pushing down on the underlying soil. This hard pan restricts water infiltration, limiting the soil’s ability to absorb and retain water; it also severely restricts root growth of crops, which in turn has a negative impact on crop yield. 

TO PLOW DEEPER WITH A TRACTOR

Continue reading THE PLOW VERSUS THE TRACTOR 2