Tag Archives: living water is

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE SOLUTION

The question: should Canada prioritize climate change adaptation or should Canada spend more funds on mitigation. Today Canada, like many other western nations, is following a chaotic pathway to solving GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE. These countries have spent a fortune rejigging their energy system while barely reducing emissions.

Global Affairs Canada’s spends $7.0 billion in 2018–19, including $298 million (4%) for various climate change initiatives such as greater energy efficiency and better public transit systems.

Emissions of carbon dioxide – the greenhouse gas most responsible for global warming – reached an all-time high in 2018. The extra CO2 caused temperatures to rise to levels that cannot be explained by natural factors, scientists report. In the past 20 years, the world’s temperature has risen about two-thirds of a degree Fahrenheit, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said. Much more needs to be done, because if countries stick to the commitments they have already made, we are on track to see 3 degrees Celsius of global warming. http://africapitalism.us/carbon-tax-failure/

This year, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached its highest level in recorded history, at 410 parts per million. CO2 levels were about 280 parts per million before the Industrial Revolution in the late 1800s.

The map identifies seven “greening clusters” circled in red – including (1) across central North America, (2) southern Brazil, (3) the European Union, (4) Central Africa, (5) India, (6) China and (7) South Australia. Cropland expansion has contributed the most to greening. Six out of seven “greening clusters” (shown on the map) have highly intensive agriculture

China and India account for one-third of the greening but contain only 9% of the global vegetated land area. China has, according to its government, planted 35 billion trees since the 1990s. This greening trend we see from human activity cannot offset the loss of rainforest. Africa has lost 2.6 billion tons of CO2 in just seven years.

Let us examine a car tire that represents our world but it has serious leaks, which are hardly being addressed. Canada is obsessed with it small leak and it has budgeted for a very large carbon tax plug which does little to solve the flat tire.

What is sadly needed is more realism. There is a very large hole that needs to be plugged. Canada must show leadership by encouraging international cooperation. Global problems require global solutions: countries must work together to solve their common problem.

Trees are the strongest weapons we have in the fight against climate change. Planting of trees absorb CO2, but trees must be planted now in countries like Uganda that have lots of sun and rain. – not sometime in the future. The situation requires more swift and energetic action.

It starts with one tree nursery in Uganda that is self-sustaining. Such a model is already in place at a bare bones cost of $40,000. Since our own tree nursery still has a lot of unknowns, it can be assumed that the budget will be much higher. There are additional costs involving scooter trucks for delivery of seedlings, which only cost $1500, and later can be also used to transport produce.

Storage of easily spoiled fruit becomes a necessity. Simple inexpensive storage facilities are explained on the web sites of AfriCapitalism.us

THE CARBON TAX FUND FOR TREES

The fund can support 500 trees on one farm for a total cost of $250 for a period of 25 years plus an initial $500 for a total of $750 for one orchard.

There will be 500 trees with a NPV of $0.49/tree seedling: at the rate of $15/ton, the Net Present Value (NPV) is $250.

Add $1.00/tree for reporting and auditing for 25 years (that’s a one-off total – not per year): $500 to be audited by Living Water MicroFinance Inc. for 25 years. This will be monitored by a local cooperative.

This part of the fund will support each 1.5 acre farm that will have access to $150/year in the form of micro finance assistance complements of the Carbon Tax Fund. Each $150 will be recycled nine times for a total of $1,350.

This calculation does NOT include income streams from the fruit and nut produce, which are reserved for the women farmers and their families.  Later, irrigation can be added for a remunerative 275% crop improvement.

Since it takes up to two years for an orchard to be productive, a reliable source of income in the meantime will come from vegetable gardening like yams that would be planted in between the trees.

THE MODEL TODAY’S TALL TREE NURSERY

 The model tree nursery should be located near a developed area in order to access more professional manpower like a technical agricultural school. The school can provide training for the necessary expansion of tree nurseries throughout Uganda or other parts of Africa.

The nursery must be located at the banks of a water source, preferably near fast moving water like rapids or waterfalls in order to tap into the production of electricity. See http://hugenergy.us. Badly needed electricity can be used to support a host of small industries in the area.

With electricity it is possible to introduce large pumps that can provide irrigation: https://livingwatermicrofinance.org/carbon-pollution-irrigation/

The secret of this success is a sustainable approach to a tree nursery: fertilization is assured from both rabbits and fish that are part of the project. The system provides rabbit fur and meat and fish. The expansion of the project can happen very quickly to other parts of Africa once success has been proven. https://livingwatermicrofinance.org/rabbit-fish-farm/

There is a social, spiritual and economic goal of the project:

  • Socially it supports women farmers and widows and their families.
  • Spiritually small community groups of women gather weekly for support and spiritual guidance.
  • Economically the successful orchards provide needed employment rurally and can take the pressure from the high unemployment rates in the urban parts of Africa.

THE LAND ISSUE

Historically, Uganda has an abundance of land that became available upon the expulsion of white settlers by the horrific eight year rule of Idi Amin in the 1970s. Much of this land is held by the government but also to the “lucky” supporters of Amin.

Presently, there is a problem of adequate service of roads which require government funding. Taxation is the usual way to raise funds for benefits received. Many landlords are not paying adequate taxes to support such a project of good roads. In any other country the land would be seized by the government for non-payment of reasonable taxes.

For our purposes, our project needs the stability of a long term arrangement up to 50 years in order to support women farmers and their families over many generations. If Canada agrees to initiate the necessary initial investment, the Uganda government should equally share the load with free land. Uganda should also be in a position to help provide agricultural expertise that would be supported by the carbon tax fund.

Within two to three years, this same land will be providing taxation support for Uganda. Alternatively, the land can be leased on a long term contract (50 years) and the landowner must then pay for the taxes. Canada could entertain the idea of an offer-to-purchase available land at a reasonable rate.

Some land can come initially from Church lands, which will be used to support farming parishioners who in turn will support the Church clergy and buildings. Small spiritual communities are an important aspect of church life.

Lands that are donated to support this project will inherit a legacy https://livingwatermicrofinance.org/living-water-microfinance-legacy/ One can also benefit from charitable tax deductions in the western world: http://africapitalism.us/african-landlord-donation/

 Tree Nursery & Carbon Tax Fund

SO THAT OUR BROTHERS AND SISTERS CAN LIVE IN DIGNITY  Living Water MicroFinance Inc. has an operating micro model in order to deliver a solution for the Carbon Tax Fund.

The Marginalization of the Poor in the Tropics

WHICH MODERN SOCIETY ITSELF HAS CREATED

We envision a world that solves the carbon emission problem by creating the tree nursery concept in Africa.

In the past four years, global prices of staples such as maize and wheat have twice hit record levels, driving hundreds of thousands of the world’s most vulnerable people further towards hunger and poverty.

The 100-year trend of falling food prices may be over and food prices may increase by 30-50 percent within decades, severely impacting on the very poor, who spend up to 90 percent of their income on food.

Domesticate indigenous fruit trees could help provide much-needed vitamins to millions of sub-Saharan Africans. The diversity of forest, fallow and agricultural margin foods can often help provide the range of micro nutrients needed for the human diet.

The trees’ natural habitats are being lost, mainly to widespread deforestation resulting from population growth, the cutting of trees for firewood or charcoal. Due to years of unsustainable farming practices, the soil across much of Africa has been degraded. African farmers only have access to 5% of the level of fertilizer per unit area of land as compared to their East Asian counterparts.

Farmers may see little incentive to intentionally grow indigenous fruits as a crop, because the trees are perceived as taking years to mature. This may be true in the wild, but not always when trees are cultivated.

With just 37% of the land, small farms produced 73% of agricultural output. Small farms are getting smaller because, with population pressure, farmers have to share access to existing land among more people while gaining no access to new land.

Land access for women is specifically part of the Millennium Development Goals.  According to FAO, fewer than 2% of landholders worldwide are women. Many men can make decisions about the land on behalf of themselves and their spouses, but women cannot. Another impediment is that in giving credit, governments and banks require women to present some form of authorization from their husbands or fathers: only 10% of agricultural loans go to women.

A fresh approach both to food production and the use of natural resources is needed if we are to avoid the food crises expected to touch every country in the world by the middle of this century. We can reverse the trend by giving small farmers, especially women,  the means to feed the world: with intensive/market oriented agriculture on a 1.5 acre piece of land.

Carbon Tax Tree Nursery
Today’s Tall Tree Nursery in Africa absorbs carbon emissions using finances from the Carbon Tax Fund.

The Secret is the AgroForest

Carbon Tax Tree Nursery
Today’s Tall Tree Nursery in Africa absorbs carbon emissions

Tree Nursery & Carbon Tax Fund

  1. An Improved seed, tree and fertilizer system: Today's-Tall-Trees
  • To absorb carbon dioxide in order to solve the global warming crisis
  • To produce more food economically in order to deal with world famine
  • To produce fruit, nut and fodder trees that will be used for furniture and not for burning.
  • To restore land by planting nitrogen-fixing trees among the fruit, nut and foliage trees
  • To develop organic agriculture without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides.
  • To provide all requirements of daily vitamin needs.

  3. Micro Financing for women farmers financed by the Carbon Tax Fund:  Small Farm: 1.5 acre: 500 orchard and foliage trees:

  • Carbon Tax Fund Support: $15/tree (brought forward) over the expected lifetime of 50 years. The $15/ton is equivalent to $0.14/US gal.
  • The cost of a HUG Irrigation System: $7,000,000
  • 14,000 acres to support 9,400 farms x 500 x $1.49 (NPV) = $7,000,000

NPV: Net Present Value of a tree is its value over its 50 lifetime of absorbing CO2 emissions at the rate of 1.5 tons/tree.

Please Noteanother calculation of NPV of fruit trees living for 25 years = $0.49/tree plus $1.00/tree for maintenance: $1.49/tree. (Fruit trees are productive for 25 years and then are replaced.)

The  $0.49/tree is based on $15/ton of carbon dioxide emissions. Canada will levy a $20/ton next and increase this to $30/ton . That means the new NPV will be $0.66/tree & $0.99/tree  respectively for a total of $1.66/tree and $1.99/tree.

  4.  Training with Field Officers and Agronomists

  5. Market facilitation with HUG electricity for cold storage of produce Continue reading GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE SOLUTION

WATER RESOURCES IN HAITI SOLVED 2

Water Resources Haiti

Water resources in Haiti are a major concern.

The lack of adequate safe (potable) water supplies for basic human needs is a significant problem throughout Haiti, although surface and ground water resources are abundant. This situation leads to increased competition for limited resources. Several of the main reasons for this situation are:

  • uneven rainfall distribution;
  • degradation of the watersheds caused by deforestation;
  • rapid growth in urban areas with demand beyond capacity;
  • poor distribution networks;
  • poor water resources management;
  • no single agency responsible for management of water ;
  • lack of adequate data needed to make informed decisions;
  • poor irrigation supply network leading to underdevelopment; 
  • lack of wastewater  treatment and solid waste disposal.

Most of the streams are relatively small and less than 100 kilometers long. With each passing year, the rivers and streams flow more like torrents and less like stable permanent rivers. The largest natural lake in the country is Étang Saumâtre has no outlet, and contains brackish water. Many of the smaller natural lakes that exist throughout the country also contain brackish water. 

ABJECT POVERTY

About 54 percent of the population lives in abject poverty. Based on 1997 estimates, the unemployment rate in a work force of approximately 3.6 million is about 38 percent.

Only 61.7% of the population have jobs but these are the working poor as many make only $3.10 per day. Women are least likely to go to school or have a job. Violence against women is common with 22.8% of women reporting abuse – what of the abuse that goes unreported? Of course the issue of “restavek” children or child slavery persists despite national and international laws. It is a socially accepted norm to sell children ages 5-15 and to make then work for no pay, to deny them the opportunity to attend school and results in children being abused both physically and sexually.

In Cite Soleil – the largest slum in Haiti is 3 square miles and has about 200-300,000 people. Most are unemployed and the vast majority are children. In Haiti 65% of the people are under 25 years old. The children live in extreme hunger and are exposed to gang violence, high risk for HIV/AIDS, no opportunity for an education, no sewer system and rat infestations. On average – nine people live in one shack.

Most people who live in the slums state their biggest fear is violence – especially for women and girls (Haugen and Boutros, 2014). In the slums, this problem is rampant; acts of violence are intentionally hidden, legal protection is non-existent and violence keeps the poor from ever escaping poverty.

Port-au-Prince

Water supply for Port-au-Prince, the most populated area in Haiti, is poor. In 1995 only about 35 percent of the nearly 2.5 million inhabitants had access to the water system. Most receive water only twice a week. The lack of service is attributed to

  • system losses associated with the age of the distribution system and theft of service, estimated at 60 percent;
  •  interruptions in the power supply to the wells and pumps; and
  •  contamination of water sources.

Continue reading WATER RESOURCES IN HAITI SOLVED 2

SUBSISTENCE FARMERS in AFRICA 2

 SUBSISTENCE FARMERS NEED HOPE
Subsistence Farmers

Consider the livelihoods of the tens of millions of vulnerable subsistence small-holder farmers around the world. In 20 to 25 years we will get to a point in some places that either it will be too hot, too dry, too wet, or too cold for the crops we are planting and you, which will be incredibly disruptive at best.

Over the last two decades, either early or late on set of rainy seasons, unexpected rainfall, declining rainfall, and extreme day and night temperature are common.

According to The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 75% of the world’s 1.2 billion poor (defined as consuming less than one purchasing-power adjusted dollar per day) live and work in rural areas. 50% of the developing-country rural population were smallholders (farming 3 ha or less of crop land), and ≈25% were landless. The proportion of smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa was higher at 73%. 

Environmental degradation in such tropical dry land areas is widespread, irreversible or appropriately referred to as “desertification”. All this, and other stressors, are seen as contributing to an increased vulnerability to drought, which in turn feeds back in to environmental degradation and conflict. There will be eventual impacts on human development indicators such as health and education.

There is a bright side: increasingly unstable weather in recent years has left many farmers more willing to try new ideas. Many are now open to adapting of using practices like crop diversification, planting date adjustment, soil and water conservation and management, increasing the intensity of input use, integrating crop with livestock and rabbits, and tree planting. Subsistence Farmers

  • ·         Small-holder farmers can shift to irrigated farming in the face of climate variability.
  • ·         Small-holder farmers can hold some wealth in bank accounts, and others use micro finance credit to expand.
  • ·         Small-holder farmers can use supplementary feed for livestock, purchased or lopped from trees in their orchards.
  • ·         Small-holder farmers can engage in rabbit accumulation as a rational form of insurance against drought. 

 FOOD AID: EARLY SOLUTIONS NOW

Why in a “world of plenty” are 20 million people face famine? Continue reading SUBSISTENCE FARMERS in AFRICA 2

WATER CRISIS: A CATASTROPHE 2

  • TODAY’S CRISIS WILL BECOME A CATASTROPHE.

water crisisIf water is not managed better…water OUR THIRSTY WORLD

As water becomes ever more scant the world needs to conserve it, use it more efficiently. Researchers from MIT predict that by 2050, more than half of humanity will live in water-stressed areas, where people are now extracting unsustainable amounts from available freshwater sources.  We can expect a water crisis that will go viral into a catastrophe if we continue with business as usual.

Many people have a strong moral aversion to paying for the life-sustaining liquid. Some feel that water is a right, and should therefore be free. Others lobby governments to subsidize its distribution to favored groups. This results in vast, but preventable waste.

To make matters worse, few places price water properly. Usually, it is artificially cheap, because politicians are scared to charge much for something essential that falls from the sky. This means that consumers have little incentive to conserve it and investors have little incentive to build pipes and other infrastructure to bring it to where it is needed most.

water scarcity

In many countries people can pump as much water as they like from underground aquifers, because rules are either lax or not enforced. But it is unsustainable: around a fifth of the world’s aquifers are over-exploited.

.water crisis

India appears to be headed for a very great water crisis because of the inexpensive available pumps together with a large population:
GROUND WATER USAGE

People do not drink much water—only a few liters a day. But putting food on their tables requires floods of the stuff. Growing 1 lb of wheat takes 125 gallons of water; fattening a cow to produce the same weight of beef involves 12 times more. Overall, agriculture accounts for more than 70% of global freshwater withdrawals. Farmers in parched places grow thirsty cash crops such as avocados, which could easily be imported from somewhere wetter.

THE COMING CRISIS

Continue reading WATER CRISIS: A CATASTROPHE 2

Decentralized Tree Nurseries in Africa 2

DECENTRALIZED TREE NURSERIES

More than 92 percent of all nurseries catering for villages are still located at regional and district levels. As a result, seedlings have to be transported long distances, sometimes even beyond 50 km. The inadequacy of transport is one of the major setbacks in tree-planting, in terms of both availability and cost. All efforts must be made to decentralize nurseries as much as conditions allow.

To bridge this energy supply-demand gap, a massive amount of tree-planting is needed. The natural forest is shrinking very fast, and most alternative energy sources have had no significant impact so far.

One of the main reasons tree-planting is failing among some African communities is that they are often given species only for firewood, like eucalyptus. 

 Weak village leadership contributes directly to delays over deciding whether to plant trees or not; and then, even if trees are planted, it can retard or neglect maintenance.

THE NEXT STEP: ORCHARDS AND BIOCHAR

Each woman farmer and their family will begin the task of preparing to plant 300 fruit and nut trees on their leased 1.5 acre farms, Every tree will need a 2- 3 feet diameter excavation, where a biochar earth mound will be built of branches.

nursery layout2

EARTH MOUND KILN

biochar mound

The earth mound kiln is built in the following manner:

The bottom of the base is covered with logs forming a grate or crib on which the wood is piled vertically. The grate forms a free space between the bottom and the wood charge through which the air necessary for the carbonization process passes. The piled wood is covered with leaves and grass and then earth about 20 cm (8”) thick.

The pile has an outside stack made of steel drums, which is connected to the pile through a flue cut into the ground, running under the pile and covered with round logs. The pile has a number of air vents located around the circular base.

biochar soil management

The carbonization process is started by introducing a torch into the firing flue opposite the stack. This type of pile is reported to be easy to operate to produce good charcoal quality with a yield of 55% charcoal to wood by volume. The pile’s volume varies from 100 to 250 m³ of wood. The whole cycle takes 24 days; four days for charging, six days for carbonization, ten days for cooling and four days for discharge.

 Carbon Emission to be Solved

Continue reading Decentralized Tree Nurseries in Africa 2

Productive African Farms and Emissions 2

More productive African farms could help both people and emissions.

Boosting the efficiency of Africa’s productive lands is not only necessary for feeding larger populations, but also a possible means of reducing emissions.

degraded-land3

An article in the Economist, “World climate talks address agriculture” identifies the problem.

SINCE the 1960s farm production has risen fourfold in Africa. But the continent still lags far behind the gains seen in South America and Asia. The extra food has appeared largely because more land has been planted or grazed, rather than because crop yields have improved. Instead, poor farming methods progressively deplete nutrients from soils; almost all arable land in Africa lacks irrigation, for example. This is a particular problem in a continent whose population is set to double by 2050 and which faces regular droughts, floods and heat waves.

The world is already 1°C warmer than it was in pre-industrial times. As it heats further, weather cycles are set to speed up, leaving wet parts of the world wetter and dry parts drier. At either end of the scale, extreme weather events will probably intensify. By 2050, even if temperature rise is successfully limited to 2°C, crop yields could slump by a fifth.

The costs of climate change already come each year to 1.5% of the continent’s GDP, according to the European Commission, and adapting to it will cost another 3% each year until 2030. This is in spite of the fact that, overall, Africa is responsible for just 4% of global emissions annually.

Soil: potential carbon sinks

Fertilizer is extremely important. We cannot feed people if soil is degraded. The production of fertilizer in a form of biochar is absolutely huge which help to absorb carbon in the soils.

Soil in a long-term experiment appears red when depleted of carbon (left) and dark brown when carbon content is high (right).

Scientists say that more carbon resides in soil than in the atmosphere and all plant life combined; there are 2,500 billion tons of carbon in soil, compared with 800 billion tons in the atmosphere and 560 billion tons in plant and animal life. 

degraded land
Soil in a long-term experiment appears red when depleted of carbon (left) and dark brown when carbon content is high (right).

Well-nourished soils are better at absorbing carbon dioxide rather than allowing it to enter the atmosphere. But the continent’s over-grazed, over-used soil currently means Africa only stores 175 gigatons of carbon each year of the 1,500 gigatons stored in the world’s soils. Smarter farming could change all that. The world’s cultivated soils have lost between 50 and 70 percent of their original carbon stock, much of which has oxidized upon exposure to air to become CO2

If we treat soil carbon as a renewable resource, we can change the dynamics.  Restoring soils of degraded and desertified ecosystems has the potential to store in world soils an additional 1 billion to 3 billion tons of carbon annually, equivalent to roughly 3.5 billion to 11 billion tons of CO2 emissions. (Annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning are roughly 32 billion tons.) 

 Soil carbon sequestration needs to be part of the picture. Currently deforestation takes place where vast areas are cleared for new fields because too little grows in existing ones.

degraded-land13

Vast areas of deforested land that have been abandoned after soil degradation are excellent candidates for replanting and reforestation using biochar from the weeds now growing there. According to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization, grasslands, which cover more than a quarter of the world’s land, hold 20 percent of the world’s soil carbon stock. Much of this land is degraded.

The biochar solution for small farms involves branches of fruit trees, which are cut every year to facilitate the harvest, weigh about 50 tons/ha. If this biomass is converted by pyrolysis to biochar, about 1/3 will revert to 16.7 tons of black carbon/ha and this can be mixed with compost. This will enhance the way biochar develops microbes.

Biochar

If one third of the degraded land, 660 million ha, are used and every year 15 tons/ha biochar is mixed in the soil, this will be together 10 billion tons of Carbon (10 Gt carbon is equivalent to 3.7 Gt CO2) taken from the air and stored in the soil. This is the amount of fossil CO2 which is just released every year.

co2-emissions

The only problem with this solution is the scale. Imagine what it means to use soil carbon sequestration techniques on 10% of all arable land: Millions of farmers must change their way of doing agriculture to make it happen. But the alternative — staying the course of ecological ruin — is not very appealing. 

Hilly Lands

Hilly Land Sustainable Agriculture (HLSA) farming systems feature the establishment of single or double hedgerows of either leguminous tree species, shrubs or grasses seeded or planted along contour lines. Hedgerows, serving as barriers, will conserve surface soil by building up organic mass, increasing plant nutrient elements and improving the water holding  capacity of the soil, thus conserving surface soil by slowing down erosion. Rocks,stubble,  branches and other farm debris are piled at the base of the hedges to further reinforce the foundation of the hedgerows. 

The densely planted hedgerows are pruned regularly to encourage the growth of a thick vegetative canopy and provide a continuous supply of green manure that is scattered on the planting strips between hedgerows.

Trees or shrubs alone used as hedges cannot control effectively soil erosion that can lead to flooding and mass destruction of hilly lands that took centuries to build.

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) provides high biomass production for hedgerows; they have been successfully used in some parts of Thailand, Indonesia, China, and India. The grass has the potential to markedly reduce erosion and rapidly develop natural terraces on slopes with less management attention. It stays alive for 25 to 45 years without being replanted.

AFRICA AGRICULTURAL HOPESPOTS

Continue reading Productive African Farms and Emissions 2

CLIMATE CHANGE 2

Optimism on Climate Change

 In the book, Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future, Johan Norberg points out that humans are a gloomy species. Some 71% of Britons think the world is getting worse; only 5% think it is improving.  It’s been devastating to see inaccuracies and confusion on the subject sometimes perpetuated by the media, especially on the topic of Climate Change. 

Blood and guts and disasters are what make for headlines. Is it any wonder that we feel apprehensive — with so many disasters “all around us”? The media amplify this distortion. Famines and earthquakes all make gripping headlines; “40 million Planes Landed Safely Last Year” does not.

Pessimism has political consequences. A whopping 81% of Donald Trump’s supporters think life has grown worse in the past 50 years.

Sweden in those days was poorer than Sub-Saharan Africa is today. “Why are some people poor?” is the wrong question, argues Mr. Norberg. Poverty is the starting point for all societies. What is astonishing is how fast it has receded. In 1820, 94% of humanity subsisted on less than $2 a day in modern money. That fell to 37% in 1990 and less than 10% in 2015.

As people grow more adept at abstract thought, they find it easier to imagine themselves in other people’s shoes. And there is plenty of evidence that society has grown more tolerant. The main reason why things tend to get better is that knowledge is cumulative and easily shared.

There is still the question of global warming, which is a worry?  Can human ingenuity tame it?

CAN we change? And the answer, fortunately, is now YES!

We’re seeing a continuing sharp, exponential decline in the cost of renewable energy, energy efficiency, batteries and storage  —  and the spread of sustainable agriculture and forestry  —  giving nations around the world a historic opportunity to embrace a sustainable future, based on a low carbon, hyper-efficient economy. 

WILL we change?

In December, 195 nations reached a historic agreement in Paris, which exceeded the highest end of the range of expectations. And the Paris Agreement is just the most recent example of our willingness to act. Much more change is needed, of course, but one of the binding provisions of the Paris Agreement requires five-year transparent reviews of the action plans put forward by every nation, and the first will begin in less than two years. These countries pledge to act to keep global temperature rises to between 1.5 and 2 degrees.

Also, over 1,000 non-state groups, from Tesco and Tata to Aviva and Cisco, have so far signed the Paris Pledge for Action on Climate. This new movement is  really self-preservation.  It begins with the investors. Would you invest in a company that was insensitive to climate change? Company executives know this insensitivity and they are acting accordingly.

Not only do we have to feel hopeful, but we have to speak hopefully because people are motivated by hope.  For example, global investment in renewables is predicted to be $8,000 billion over the next 25 years;

Carbon Offsetting by Planting Trees –                     Is it a realistic Proposition?

The oceans are enormously important. Carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean. If that hadn’t happened, and if the oceans weren’t there, climate change would already be much worse.  When CO2 is released into the atmosphere, about three-quarters of it dissolves into the ocean over a few decade (Acidity).

We must concentrate on the rest of the carbon dioxide emissions, which will only be neutralized by a variety of longer-term geological processes over 250 years.

The only true solution to combat climate change is by tree planting. Ending deforestation, which cause 10% of the problem, will not solve global warming by itself —urgent action is needed to cut the other 90 percent of emissions.

The world is home to over three trillion treeswith almost half of them living in tropical or subtropical forests. There are roughly 400 trees for every human. 12,000 years ago, before the advent of agriculture, Earth had twice as many trees as it does now. (The previous estimate of trees in the world was 400 billion.)

degraded-land7

degraded-land8

 Time to get the calculator and do some sums:

Continue reading CLIMATE CHANGE 2

MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

Here is how we begin our MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION:

 An African Revolution: if agricultural mechanization equipment is sent to an African country, like Ivory Coast, it has a value of $200,000 if it was brand new. The nearly new equipment has a real value of $100,000 hypothetically. The agricultural equipment dealer or farmer working with the dealer receives a tax refund benefit at the rate of the last $1000 owed to the government; say 30% of 100,000 or $30,000 from Living Water MicroFinance Inc., a non-profit company.

Mechanization in Africa

The new owner, Living Water MicroFinance Inc., will sell the equipment in question in Africa and will feel indebted to the previous owner, the equipment dealer or the farmer. This indebtedness will be 50% of the net selling price. This indebtedness will be resolved in our hypothetical example, by the purchase of additional new equipment from the dealer.  

If a farmer were to donate his or her used equipment there would be a large tax refund receipt and a cash credit from a third party, Coop Eau Vivante in Africa to a dealer of his or her choice or some other similar arrangement.

More important there will be a real contribution to poverty and famine in an underdeveloped country. We are talking about increased needed efficiency in the agricultural field, which will lead to more employment as well.

Since the need for this equipment is so high, the equipment will enter duty free and since this equipment will be sent to Africa, copies of bill of lading will be made available to the dealer or farmer. We are presently interested in exporting to Cote d’Ivoire.

bpartner

YOU CAN HELP by being our Partner:

Continue reading MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

CARBON TAX DILEMMA 2

The Dilemma of the Carbon Tax

Paradigm Shift

That doesn’t solve problems of carbon dioxide emissions.

It is the time for a new look at the Carbon Tax Dilemma. A paradigm shift is required:  from one of collecting carbon sin tax, which is merely recycled into investment for economic growth to a focus on sustainable global warming solutions

We are still miles away from meeting our targets in Canada and the  United States. Emissions of greenhouse gases are running at about 750 megatons annually in Canada, about the same as in 2005; on current trends they are expected to reach 768 MT by 2020 and 815 MT by 2030.

Politicians being elected and rewarded on the basis of short-term decisions that are by many measures intellectually, morally, and financially “corrupt”, and the so-called knowledge workers–the scientists, engineers, and others who should be “blowing the whistle,” are so specialized that there is a real lack of holistic  knowledge to see the Big Pictureintegrating and imagining how all the pieces fit together. 

There must be a better way!

The Province of Ontario is counting on nearly $2 billion a year from auctioning carbon-emission permits to heavy industry, which is supposed to start a virtuous circle of planet-saving investments.

We’re joining a carbon market already functioning in Quebec and California, whose last auction of permits in May went splat. Quebec sold 10 per cent of the permits it expected, California just two per cent.

Canada or United States Leads the Way!

There is a strong case that can be made that Canada or the United States could be on the forefront of in dealing with the absorption of carbon dioxide  emissions. When we lead from the front the rest of the world will take notice. There will be an impact on other countries’ behavior from the example that both countries are showing. The benefits of reducing  emissions will increase their international goodwill.

The action Canada or the United States takes must be the lowest possible cost. There can be no other low cost solution than supporting and monitoring tree nurseries in Africa. We are talking about an $80,000 bare bones cost.

untitled-1

Each tree seedling has a Net Present Value based on the amount of carbon dioxide emission that it absorbs: at the rate of $15/ton of C02 emissions, the NPV would be a range of $0.49/fruit tree over 25 years to $2.49/nut tree for 50 years. If we add the cost of monitoring, reporting and auditing over the life of a tree, we must add a further $1.00. The monitoring is relatively easy since all the 300 newly planted fruit trees with a NPV of $450 on an acre and half farms will be maintained by African women and their families.

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. provides the short term micro finance to support the women during the 18 months before the trees become productive. This non-profit company, which acts as a third party auditor, will  confirm methods and results. It will also arrange for 25 year to 50 year long term leases with landlords in order to guarantee stability for the women farmers who work in teams of five and who meet weekly.

This support is a new form of foreign aid with a double purpose: famine protection and global warming solutions. The African countries do not have to get involved except to provide agronomist expertise. The money does not flow to an African country.

The funds are used to create the Today’s Tall Tree nurseries, which are very scalable. The tree nursery must have access to flowing water at a high point to allow for irrigation of nutrient water to neighboring farms using micro feeder tubes.

0000Today's-Tall-Tree2

Each tree nursery will be partnered with a technical school that will teach fish and rabbit rearing along with tree nursery maintenance. The main purpose of the self-supporting rabbit-fish farm is to provide nutrient water for the seedlings..

 

untitled-2b

CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE

Back in Norway, Statoil also operates two projects to store carbon dioxide under water, in some of the most advanced examples of a technology seen as key to removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere: carbon capture and storage (CCS). This is costly and still in its infancy, and governments have supported it only erratically. In 2015 a mere 28 million tonnes of CO2 was stored that way. To help meet the 2ºC limit, the International Energy Agency (IEA) says the world needs to store a whopping 4 billion tonnes a year by 2040.

  Carbon Emission to be Solved

Continue reading CARBON TAX DILEMMA 2

THE CONCEPTUAL AGE 2

The Conceptual Age has come.

The world as you know it is changing. The future belongs to a very different kind of person with a very different kind of mind. We are moving from an economy built on logical capabilities of the Information Age to an economy built on inventive, empathic, big picture capabilities of the Conceptual Age.

In the Conceptual Age we are doing what the overseas knowledge workers can’t do cheaply, that computers can’t do faster, and that satisfies the aesthetic, emotional and spiritual needs of a more prosperous time. In this new age, we need to offer something that satisfies the non-material, transcendent desires of an abundant age?

 So what are we to do to prepare ourselves for this change? We will concentrate on several aptitudes:

  1. The appetite for design thinking to reframe experience has never been greater. We start with Design: Today’s Tall Trees

mechanizing-africa

Forests act as a carbon sink by taking carbon dioxide out of atmosphere. It seems like simple arithmetic: a tree can absorb up to a ton of carbon dioxide over its lifetime (25 – 40 years), so planting one should be an easy way to mitigate climate change. Remember that tropical trees work 12 months of the year sequestering carbon because there is no dormant winter season. We need to plant billions of trees in Africa.

  1. We must tell our Story to communicate with others and to build a purpose.

Humans are not ideally set up to understand logic; they are set up to understand stories. Every society has told stories. We have a story to give away to someone else who needs it.

The basis of our work depends on agricultural mechanization. A young African will move to the city if all he can earn is $10/day. This same African will return to the land because mechanization has changed the whole picture: the farms can now be more productive.

Enter the world of Living Water MicroFinance Inc. Our company mission is to support women farmers and their families in Africa. We negotiate with landlords to make land available to these subsistence families for a long term lease over 25 years. We help produce cash crops, which include cacao and inter-cropping with yams and banana plantain. We start with a tree nursery that is supported by a Carbon Tax Fund, in which every tree that is planted and lives for 25 years has a net present value of $1.50.

  1. We must look at the Big Picture – combining all the pieces to a new whole or holistic thinking.

The ability to see the Big Picture encompasses the ability to grasp the relationships between relationships: integrating and imagining how all the pieces fit together. The person who invented the wheel may have been smart but the person who invented the other three wheels was a genius.

The Big Picture:

Stage 1     

We develop Agricultural Mechanization of Africa: The main objective of farm mechanization is increasing agricultural production. We focus primarily on the export of tractors.                          

Stage 2   Carbon Emission to be Solved

Continue reading THE CONCEPTUAL AGE 2