Tag Archives: sustainability

WATER CRISIS: A CATASTROPHE 2

  • TODAY’S CRISIS WILL BECOME A CATASTROPHE.

water crisisIf water is not managed better…water OUR THIRSTY WORLD

As water becomes ever more scant the world needs to conserve it, use it more efficiently. Researchers from MIT predict that by 2050, more than half of humanity will live in water-stressed areas, where people are now extracting unsustainable amounts from available freshwater sources.  We can expect a water crisis that will go viral into a catastrophe if we continue with business as usual.

Many people have a strong moral aversion to paying for the life-sustaining liquid. Some feel that water is a right, and should therefore be free. Others lobby governments to subsidize its distribution to favored groups. This results in vast, but preventable waste.

To make matters worse, few places price water properly. Usually, it is artificially cheap, because politicians are scared to charge much for something essential that falls from the sky. This means that consumers have little incentive to conserve it and investors have little incentive to build pipes and other infrastructure to bring it to where it is needed most.

water scarcity

In many countries people can pump as much water as they like from underground aquifers, because rules are either lax or not enforced. But it is unsustainable: around a fifth of the world’s aquifers are over-exploited.

.water crisis

India appears to be headed for a very great water crisis because of the inexpensive available pumps together with a large population:
GROUND WATER USAGE

People do not drink much water—only a few liters a day. But putting food on their tables requires floods of the stuff. Growing 1 lb of wheat takes 125 gallons of water; fattening a cow to produce the same weight of beef involves 12 times more. Overall, agriculture accounts for more than 70% of global freshwater withdrawals. Farmers in parched places grow thirsty cash crops such as avocados, which could easily be imported from somewhere wetter.

THE COMING CRISIS

Continue reading WATER CRISIS: A CATASTROPHE 2

SUSTAINABLE BIOCHAR AND GLOBAL WARMING 2

SUSTAINABLE BIOCHARBIOCHAR SOLUTIONS

Sustainable biochar is a powerfully simple tool to fight global warming. This 2,000 year-old practice converts agricultural waste into a soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security, and discourage deforestation. Sustainable biochar is one of the few technologies that are relatively inexpensive, widely applicable, and quickly scalable.

Farmers in Brazil have long known about the “black earth,” or terra preta, found over vast areas of the Amazon. In the last decade or two archaeologists have begun to realise that the terra preta was not a naturally occurring phenomenon, but had been cultivated over centuries, if not millennia.  They turned some of the wood into charcoal and then worked it back into the soil, creating an unusually rich and fertile ground.

Traditionally, people have used biochar and ash in their fields. This practice exists all over the world. There is a need to recognize the value and create awareness on biochar. Farmers know that wherever biomass is burnt in the field’s crop grows stronger, healthier and better.

 In East Africa, sugarcane and maize waste is normally burned in the field, as it has no other value. In-field burning returns approximately 2-5% of the original carbon to the soil and a negligible amount of NPK.  It does little to improve soil, and is considered a major source of particulate and soot emissions in the region.

Burning without oxygen can also mean burning without smoke, which leads to the idea of replacing home heating and cooking stoves with pyrolizing kilns that provide the same functions but are clean-burning, inexpensive and easy to use, and instead of generating smoke and ash.

Biochar is essentially charcoal, but burnt at a lower temperature and with a more restricted flow of oxygen; it has the potential to end the slash-and-burn cycle in Sub-Saharan Africa.

According to researcher Bruno Glaser at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, a hectare of meter-deep terra preta can hold 250 tons of carbon, as opposed to 100 tons of carbon in unimproved soils. 

THAT MEANS THAT THERE IS A POTENTIAL  OF 150 TONS OF CARBON CAPTURE/ HA POSSIBLE. (THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE THE FORESTATION ON THE SAME HECTARE)

In addition, the bio-char itself increases soil fertility, which allows farmers to grow more plants, which allows more bio-char to be added to the soil. Johannes Lehman, author of Amazonian Dark Earths, claims that combining bio-char and bio-fuels could draw down 9.5 billion tons per year, or 35 Gt CO2 per year equal to all our current fossil fuel emissions.

Biochar Trenches

This is the simplest and convenient method for farmers to convert the crop residue / biomass in the farm lands into biochar trenches. All the biochar, burnt soil remains within the field could be conveniently spread by the farmer within the whole field.

It is more convenient to make such trenches after ploughing the field. Trenches perpendicular to the slopes also benefit the steep sloppy areas as water harvesting means. The entire crop residue otherwise burnt openly can be collected and dumped into these trenches lengthwise. More biomass can be added during the process. Once the trench is filled with biomass and compact, it should be covered by grass, weeds, broad leaves, etc. After covering it up, soil should be spread on the trench, a lengthy mound is created. Some water could be used to make the soil compact and for sealing the mound of biomass. A small hole is left open for lighting the biomass at one end and at the other end a very small opening is left open. Once it is lit, white smoke starts emitting at the other end. The result is a smoking mound over the trenches.  

When it smokes too much or when it cracks, too much oxygen is getting in. You must plastered more mud and earth over that part until the leak was stopped. You must keep an eye on the smoke, in order to stop the burn when it changed color. You can stop it by covering it with more earth to entirely cut off the oxygen.biochar-soil-management8

The trenches are 2 to 3 feet depth and 1.5 to 2 feet width. Small holes are to be made in a biochar along the length of the trench at every 10 to 15 feet in a biochar trench. After 24 hours the biomass is converted into biochar. Any little smoke or embers should be quenched with water or covered with soil while removing the biochar from the trench.

The alternative is to burn the biomass openly, which causes pollution and very little carbon is formed.

Over the three year study period, t was observed that the chances of seeds germination are 20% to 30% higher in the soils with biochar compared to control soils. All soil properties except pH showed significant changes. In both biochar amended and control soils, salt, manganese, and potash content showed consistent increases while phosphate content decreased.  Additional phosphate fertilizer may be needed. Organic phosphorus fertilizers come primarily from mineral sources, like rock dust or from bone sources such as steamed bone meal or fish bone meal.

biochar-soil-management23

Cacao plants planted into soil rich in biochar started producing fruits half the normal time. Plants seem to be supported for longer and there is less yellowing of leaves. 

BIOCHAR COMPOSTdegraded-land24

Continue reading SUSTAINABLE BIOCHAR AND GLOBAL WARMING 2

MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

Here is how we begin our MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION:

 An African Revolution: if agricultural mechanization equipment is sent to an African country, like Ivory Coast, it has a value of $200,000 if it was brand new. The nearly new equipment has a real value of $100,000 hypothetically. The agricultural equipment dealer or farmer working with the dealer receives a tax refund benefit at the rate of the last $1000 owed to the government; say 30% of 100,000 or $30,000 from Living Water MicroFinance Inc., a non-profit company.

Mechanization in Africa

The new owner, Living Water MicroFinance Inc., will sell the equipment in question in Africa and will feel indebted to the previous owner, the equipment dealer or the farmer. This indebtedness will be 50% of the net selling price. This indebtedness will be resolved in our hypothetical example, by the purchase of additional new equipment from the dealer.  

If a farmer were to donate his or her used equipment there would be a large tax refund receipt and a cash credit from a third party, Coop Eau Vivante in Africa to a dealer of his or her choice or some other similar arrangement.

More important there will be a real contribution to poverty and famine in an underdeveloped country. We are talking about increased needed efficiency in the agricultural field, which will lead to more employment as well.

Since the need for this equipment is so high, the equipment will enter duty free and since this equipment will be sent to Africa, copies of bill of lading will be made available to the dealer or farmer. We are presently interested in exporting to Cote d’Ivoire.

bpartner

YOU CAN HELP by being our Partner:

Continue reading MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

AGROFORESTRY: DROUGHT & FAMINE PROOF 2

AGROFORESTRY & OUR MISSION:  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Agroforestry for Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture.

Agroforestry is the deliberate use of trees on the same land management unit as arable crops in a mixed spatial arrangement at the same time. Agroforestry contributes to preserve this fragile ecosystem while providing new resources for smallholder farmers

Alley cropping: Growing annual crops in spaces between rows of trees or shrubs, often leguminous ones that tolerate heavy and regular coppicing. The leafy and woody material of the trees and shrubs is used as mulch in the crops and also often as fodder and timber.

In these harsh conditions, 60 million poor people need to live and grow food. More than 50% of the West African Sahel land is degraded and not suitable for cultivation. In most cases the degraded land is composed of crusted lateritic soils impermeable to water. 

Small-scale Nurseries can receive orders for large quantities of neem,  Black Thorn (Acacia mellifera) and mesquite (Prosopis julifiora), largely for live-hedging purposes by fruit garden owners, as well as the schools.

Agroforestry Vegetables

Untitled-1A2

Continue reading AGROFORESTRY: DROUGHT & FAMINE PROOF 2

GLOBAL WARMING IS HERE! 2

GLOBAL WARMING AND OUR MISSION:  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture. All this is done to fight Global Warming.

This, on current trends, will be the hottest year ever measured. The previous record was set in 2015; the one before in 2014. Fifteen of the 16 warmest years have occurred in the 21st century. Each of the past 14 months has beaten the global monthly temperature record.

According to NASA, this August was the hottest month on record. Again. That’s not the hottest August on record, or the hottest month of 2016. It means that August of 2016 was the hottest month since recording began – in 1880. That means 2016 is well underway to becoming the hottest year on record, just like the past three years. In fact, every month since October 2015 has set new monthly high-temperature records. This summer was hotter than last summer. This winter was warmer than last winter. And it doesn’t show signs of stopping.

Untitled-1d

India has been hammered by cycles of drought and flood, as withering heat parches the soil and torches glaciers in the Himalayas. Southern and eastern Africa has been pitched into humanitarian emergencies by drought.

A short while ago, in Paris, 177 nations promised to try to ensure the world’s average temperature did not rise by more than 1.5 C above the pre-industrial level. Already it has climbed by 1.3 C – faster and further than almost anyone predicted. In one respect, the scientists were wrong. They told us to expect a climate crisis in the second half of this century. But it’s already here.

 We can expect more hurricanes, flooding, and tsunamis from weather changes and earthquakes as well as corresponding droughts.

Incidentally, if tsunamis are in the cards, what are you doing living on low lands near an ocean?

Continue reading GLOBAL WARMING IS HERE! 2

TREE NURSERY WITH THE MESQUITE TREE 2

THE TREE NURSERY AND OUR MISSION:  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nursery to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture

The Tree Nursery


Biochar26 Biochar24

Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora ) is an N-fixing legume tree, typical of arid and semi-arid regions, growing up to 10-15 m high. The crown is large and the canopy is open. Mesquite is a phreatophyte and has a deep taproot, growing downwards in search of water tables (down to 35 m depth). The value of the tree lies in its exceptional tolerance of heat, drought (8 months and possibly longer) and marginal soils. They may subsequently be inter-cropped with maize.  

Prosopis juliflora and its close relative Prosopis pallida are two of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in arid and semi-arid zones of the world. 

It is also extremely invasive. Mesquite is considered as a noxious weed in many parts of the world. Grazing of mesquite stands is a way to control its growth: fresh leaves contain about 17-20% protein and their hay contains about 14% protein.  

 Mesquite wood is a good firewood (it is also called “wooden anthracite”) and produces high-quality charcoal.  It is also used for windows, doors and light carpentry.

Pods production begins 3 years after planting. Pods yields may be as high as 10 t/ha/year, average pods yields are 8.7 t/ha/year in the USA and 6 t/ha/year, after 4 years, in Brazil (under good fertilizer levels) where maize only yields 400 kg/ha.

 The pods can also be collected and fed to stalled livestock, whole or processed, alone or as part of a ration and fresh or after storage. Processed pods are more digestible and ground pods have a better nutritional value. Processing involves the pounding.

For goats, a diet containing 20% pods improved feed intake, feed conversion and body weight gain without compromising carcass yield or quality. Foliage of Prosopis juliflora is generally unpalatable, however, animals will browse the foliage during dry seasons. The palatability is most palatable for goats. It is possible to use mesquite pods up to 25% without problems in the diets of growing rabbits. Mesquite pod meal is a valuable feed for tilapia. 

Mesquite provides shade and shelter and is used in windbreaks and shelter belts along the border of a farm. 

Tall-Trees0000Today's-Tall-Tree2

 The best time to plant NUT TREES was 20 years ago

THE SECOND BEST TIME IS NOW

  1. A tree maintained over 25 years has a Net Present Value of $0.49/tree based on its capture of carbon dioxide over this lifetime.
  2. The cost to grow and plant trees in Africa over the long run is another $1.00/tree: additional cost of maintenance: weeding, pruning, mulching, slashing, care against disease and infestations:
  3.  With the support from the Carbon Tax Fund, the Tree Farm is scaleable to produce over 1,000,000 trees in a short time.

Carbon Emission to be Solved

Continue reading TREE NURSERY WITH THE MESQUITE TREE 2

AFRICA: Future World Food Basket 2

AFRICA FUTURE & OUR  MISSION:  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture for a Brighter Future in Africa.

ABYSMAL AFRICA

In contrast with Asia, which has seen huge increases in agricultural yields in the last 40 years, sub-Saharan Africa’s track record has been abysmal. Food production is actually 10% lower today than in 1960, yet over this time period the aggregate world food production has increased by 145%.

Climate change could push prices up by 130%. Rice tripled in price over a period of four months, wheat doubled and corn rose 46 per cent. This world food crisis of high grain import prices, on top of high fuel prices, has placed an acute economic squeeze on consumers in developing countries.

People move in search of better opportunities elsewhere and jobs!! The high rate of urban migration in Africa, particularly among young people, is largely because the rural economy – which is predominantly agrarian – has been stagnant. These young people are not fleeing from farming as an occupation. They are fleeing from poverty!!

AGRICULTURAL GOVERNMENT SPENDING

Agriculture can deliver 2-3 times the return on investment, in terms of improved economic well-being, as other sectors: it represents 32% of Africa’s GDP; and employs 65% of the working population. Most importantly, it is the sector where the poorest on the continent are most likely to be engaged in their struggle to survive. Some African countries’ improved economic performance over the last 10 to 15 years indicates that they do have the potential to become net exporters of food. If we transform the agriculture sector, we will transform the African continent!

The best part of two decades there has been a consensus on aid in Africa – namely that the state should not subsidize smallholder agriculture. Nearly 30 percent of World Bank lending once went to agricultural modernization, but now it is just 8 percent. China’s dramatic reduction of poverty has been achieved by growth primarily in the agricultural sector, not the industrial. Since the late 1970s, improvements in technology and infrastructure helped boost production in smallholder agriculture, with farmers’ incomes rising at more than 7% a year. The result is that 200 million small-scale farmers working an average of 0.6 hectare of land are now feeding a population of 1.3 billion.

The Maputo declaration of 2003 pledged African countries to 10% of government spending for agriculture. This took place at a conference of African Ministers for Agriculture, chaired a meeting at FAO headquarters. Thirteen years later, many African countries have not even reached 4%.

Malawi’s defied these teachings and put in place a series of policy measures that increased agricultural development and overall economic development at the cost of 16% of government spending.

LAND TENURE

During one of the biggest challenges is the issue of land tenure. It is difficult to negotiate adequate secure tenure and get permission from all of the relevant authorities. Living Water Microfinance Inc. has been focusing its efforts, especially for women, who generally are not allowed to own land.

The Gene Revolution: Africa Future

The Green Revolution of the 1960s and ’70s is now being overtaken by “the Gene Revolution” — the development and spread of GM crops across the world. The uptake of genetically modified (GM) crops is the fastest adoption rate of any crop technology, increasing from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 148 million hectares in 2010. The USDA says 94% of soy and 75% of all corn grown in the U.S. is genetically modified.

African countries such as South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt have adopted GM crops. Other countries such as Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania are preparing to start field trials. Farming giants like China, Brazil and India have embraced biotech crops. And even the European Commission (EC) is acknowledging that existing GM crops do not carry any unique risks. In a recent study, the EC has found that GM crops are at least as safe for consumers and the environment as conventionally bred plant varieties, and sometimes safer. It also concluded that GM crops could help developing countries meet their food needs while addressing the challenges of climate change in a sustainable way.

Africa is steadily joining the biotechnology revolution. South Africa’s GM crop production stood at 2.0 million hectares (4.94 million acres) in 2010.

GMO DISADVANTAGE

Anti-GMO activists are still engaged in stopping this GM effort. The European Parliament voted that calls on the G7 countries not to support the use of genetically modified (GMO) seeds in Africa, despite the dangers of food security and poverty levels on the continent. 

As reported in a New York Times article, the ridiculously high prices of seeds and pesticides are causing farmers to make less money than ever. Additionally, as pests and weeds become increasingly immune to insecticides, farmers have to spend more and more money on chemicals. And let’s not forget, they are also legally required to buy new seeds every season unless they want to be sued or forced to burn all their plants.

Currently, just three mega companies control over half of the global seed market, which has caused prices to skyrocket. For example, the average price of planting an acre of soybeans has gone up 325 percent since 1995.

So, If GMOs Aren’t the Answer…

Continue reading AFRICA: Future World Food Basket 2

Conscious Capitalism 2

CONSCIOUS CAPITALISM & OUR MISSION:  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture. We do all this under the umbrella of Conscious Capitalism.

Conscious Capitalism

Africa is most affected by businesses than any other social organizations, bringing people together to help other people and bringing value and food for Africans – not entirely for profit but a by-product of a higher purpose.

Conscious businesses are a better way to do business. It will start slowly like a small path in the forest with a local cluster, but it will expand to a broad highway, because it lifts people out of poverty and creates prosperity. Partners of conscious businesses are dedicated to the company’s purposes. Our children and grandchildren will flourish in ways that we cannot imagine.Untitled-1c2

“Business as usual” will not succeed: we need a new paradigm for business: a conscious business, which have four tenets:

  1. A higher purpose of caring: why our business exists and why you were born
  2. Harmonious Integration of all stakeholders: including landlords, suppliers, the community and the environment. We wish to build partnerships that share our common purpose.
  3. Conscious Leadership: motivated by the firm’s higher purpose.
  4. Conscious Culture: to innovate continually

Living Water MicroFinance Inc. is a heroic conscious business because it creates value and lifts Africans out of their poverty, creates stability for the family and helps build communities with technical schooling. Not by crony capitalism where the select few use the coercive power of government for their advantage.

Untitled-1c

Living Water MicroFinance’s Purpose

  • to evolve a more sustainable and efficient agricultural system using micro finance
  • to raise awareness of healthy eating
  • to help end poverty using irrigation and electricity
  • to make Conscious Business a dominant economic system

It is socially irresponsible to run a business that does not consistently generate profits, yet these are not the primary goals.

Africans feel more fulfilled when their work is more aligned with their passion: to help fellow Africans. Positions become available and careers are created through the collective intelligence of teamwork, where creative ideas of individuals are bounced around the team and get improved.

Plato discovered his ideals: the Good (service to others); the True (furthering human knowledge) and the Beautiful (excellence and the creation of beauty). We add a fourth: the Heroic (the courage to do the right thing to change and improve the world greater than most would think possible.

 Living Water Microfinance Conscious Capitalism

Continue reading Conscious Capitalism 2

The African Famine Revisited 2

AFRICAN FAMINE AND OUR MISSION:  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export  African Mechanization  for more productive agriculture and to fight famine.

African Famine

When the rains failed in 1984 it was 16 straight years of meagre rainfall, which was all too much. Most of the sub-Saharan Africa was affected including Ethiopia. The survival of 30 million Africans was in imminent risk. There was yet another crop failure in Northern and Western Sudan.

The lessons learned from these famines are tough ones: droughts are inevitable, while famine is not. It is far better to undertake development programs in advance of climate failure and the most economical use of scarce resources. This means a long term support to avert future tragedies.Untitled-1f

Part of the reason for this tragedy was the need for sustainable development as opposed to the practices of overgrazing and cutting down scarce trees for firewood, which turned fragile lands into near deserts. This evolved into a loss of productive land because of a loss of topsoil through erosion, which is very hard to reverse.

The solution to this problem of imminent climate change means a fundamental change to African economic life and behavior in order to arrest this vicious cycle of poverty. 

A Fundamental Change to African Economic Life

The foreseeable future in Africa is disorder either politically or environmentally. There is a great need for change. Although this destruction is morally repugnant to Africans, the destruction of our environment must be also addressed as an investment in our planet’s future including the stabilizing of carbon emissions.

 In economic terms the destruction of our great forests was historically only valued for their timber and the clearing of land for agriculture. Hence, there was no economic incentive to save the forests.

The Common Good Counts for Very Little.

The national interest used to be a shared value, but wherever you look today in most of Africa the rule of thumb in public life is personal gain – not public good. The common thread in all this is the complete lack of consideration for other people.

It starts with politicians, whether in government or opposition. People go into politics not to serve or make a difference, but line up their pockets. People who are in power or in a position of authority act in their own personal interests, regardless of the impact on others. This same attitude drives the politician who steals money that could be used for a hospital, school or to provide potable water, and stashes it abroad. There is little evidence that this attitude will change anytime soon.

The utter disregard for the larger interests of the country and the people is so embedded in the ruling class, it may take a mass revolt to redress. Africans are not known for staging popular revolts but that may their only salvation. In the meantime, there is a peaceful approach.

An Alternative More Peaceful Approach

Continue reading The African Famine Revisited 2

A PROTRACTED GLOBAL STAGNATION? 2

GLOBAL STAGNATION & OUR MISSION  

Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid. We export Mechanization into Africa for more productive agriculture. These activities can help avoid Global Stagnation.

Global Stagnation

The global economy is entering an era of protracted stagnation, similar to what Japan has experienced for over a decade. That is the message from The Age of Stagnation: Why Perpetual Growth is Unattainable and the Global Economy is in Peril by Satyajit Das.

Untitled-2The author challenges the assumption that growth can be perpetual and questions the ability of political leaders to enact the tough structural changes needed. He is particularly critical of the “easy money” approach to dealing with the great recession of 2008, citing the dangers of excessive debt and deep-seated fundamental imbalances. The fallout of these poor policies, he argues, will affect not only the business sector, but also the lifestyles and prosperity of average citizens and future generations.

Much of the growth of earnings in recent years is a result of cost cutting rather than growing revenues. Companies have embarked on massive stock buybacks to buoy earnings and improve their stocks’ performance, which Das does not consider tangible growth. Just the illusion of growth has pushed valuations well above their intrinsic worth. The stock market crashes of last summer and early 2016, though dismissed as necessary corrections, may be an early indication of a stock market which is losing the support of quantitative easing and low interest rates.

A new BBC report based on recent research suggests the water situation is even worse, that half of the human race is now experiencing water shortages. Continue reading A PROTRACTED GLOBAL STAGNATION? 2