Tag Archives: today’s tall trees

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE SOLUTION

The question: should Canada prioritize climate change adaptation or should Canada spend more funds on mitigation. Today Canada, like many other western nations, is following a chaotic pathway to solving GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE. These countries have spent a fortune rejigging their energy system while barely reducing emissions.

Global Affairs Canada’s spends $7.0 billion in 2018–19, including $298 million (4%) for various climate change initiatives such as greater energy efficiency and better public transit systems.

Emissions of carbon dioxide – the greenhouse gas most responsible for global warming – reached an all-time high in 2018. The extra CO2 caused temperatures to rise to levels that cannot be explained by natural factors, scientists report. In the past 20 years, the world’s temperature has risen about two-thirds of a degree Fahrenheit, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said. Much more needs to be done, because if countries stick to the commitments they have already made, we are on track to see 3 degrees Celsius of global warming. http://africapitalism.us/carbon-tax-failure/

This year, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached its highest level in recorded history, at 410 parts per million. CO2 levels were about 280 parts per million before the Industrial Revolution in the late 1800s.

The map identifies seven “greening clusters” circled in red – including (1) across central North America, (2) southern Brazil, (3) the European Union, (4) Central Africa, (5) India, (6) China and (7) South Australia. Cropland expansion has contributed the most to greening. Six out of seven “greening clusters” (shown on the map) have highly intensive agriculture

China and India account for one-third of the greening but contain only 9% of the global vegetated land area. China has, according to its government, planted 35 billion trees since the 1990s. This greening trend we see from human activity cannot offset the loss of rainforest. Africa has lost 2.6 billion tons of CO2 in just seven years.

Let us examine a car tire that represents our world but it has serious leaks, which are hardly being addressed. Canada is obsessed with it small leak and it has budgeted for a very large carbon tax plug which does little to solve the flat tire.

What is sadly needed is more realism. There is a very large hole that needs to be plugged. Canada must show leadership by encouraging international cooperation. Global problems require global solutions: countries must work together to solve their common problem.

Trees are the strongest weapons we have in the fight against climate change. Planting of trees absorb CO2, but trees must be planted now in countries like Uganda that have lots of sun and rain. – not sometime in the future. The situation requires more swift and energetic action.

It starts with one tree nursery in Uganda that is self-sustaining. Such a model is already in place at a bare bones cost of $40,000. Since our own tree nursery still has a lot of unknowns, it can be assumed that the budget will be much higher. There are additional costs involving scooter trucks for delivery of seedlings, which only cost $1500, and later can be also used to transport produce.

Storage of easily spoiled fruit becomes a necessity. Simple inexpensive storage facilities are explained on the web sites of AfriCapitalism.us

THE CARBON TAX FUND FOR TREES

The fund can support 500 trees on one farm for a total cost of $250 for a period of 25 years plus an initial $500 for a total of $750 for one orchard.

There will be 500 trees with a NPV of $0.49/tree seedling: at the rate of $15/ton, the Net Present Value (NPV) is $250.

Add $1.00/tree for reporting and auditing for 25 years (that’s a one-off total – not per year): $500 to be audited by Living Water MicroFinance Inc. for 25 years. This will be monitored by a local cooperative.

This part of the fund will support each 1.5 acre farm that will have access to $150/year in the form of micro finance assistance complements of the Carbon Tax Fund. Each $150 will be recycled nine times for a total of $1,350.

This calculation does NOT include income streams from the fruit and nut produce, which are reserved for the women farmers and their families.  Later, irrigation can be added for a remunerative 275% crop improvement.

Since it takes up to two years for an orchard to be productive, a reliable source of income in the meantime will come from vegetable gardening like yams that would be planted in between the trees.

THE MODEL TODAY’S TALL TREE NURSERY

 The model tree nursery should be located near a developed area in order to access more professional manpower like a technical agricultural school. The school can provide training for the necessary expansion of tree nurseries throughout Uganda or other parts of Africa.

The nursery must be located at the banks of a water source, preferably near fast moving water like rapids or waterfalls in order to tap into the production of electricity. See http://hugenergy.us. Badly needed electricity can be used to support a host of small industries in the area.

With electricity it is possible to introduce large pumps that can provide irrigation: https://livingwatermicrofinance.org/carbon-pollution-irrigation/

The secret of this success is a sustainable approach to a tree nursery: fertilization is assured from both rabbits and fish that are part of the project. The system provides rabbit fur and meat and fish. The expansion of the project can happen very quickly to other parts of Africa once success has been proven. https://livingwatermicrofinance.org/rabbit-fish-farm/

There is a social, spiritual and economic goal of the project:

  • Socially it supports women farmers and widows and their families.
  • Spiritually small community groups of women gather weekly for support and spiritual guidance.
  • Economically the successful orchards provide needed employment rurally and can take the pressure from the high unemployment rates in the urban parts of Africa.

THE LAND ISSUE

Historically, Uganda has an abundance of land that became available upon the expulsion of white settlers by the horrific eight year rule of Idi Amin in the 1970s. Much of this land is held by the government but also to the “lucky” supporters of Amin.

Presently, there is a problem of adequate service of roads which require government funding. Taxation is the usual way to raise funds for benefits received. Many landlords are not paying adequate taxes to support such a project of good roads. In any other country the land would be seized by the government for non-payment of reasonable taxes.

For our purposes, our project needs the stability of a long term arrangement up to 50 years in order to support women farmers and their families over many generations. If Canada agrees to initiate the necessary initial investment, the Uganda government should equally share the load with free land. Uganda should also be in a position to help provide agricultural expertise that would be supported by the carbon tax fund.

Within two to three years, this same land will be providing taxation support for Uganda. Alternatively, the land can be leased on a long term contract (50 years) and the landowner must then pay for the taxes. Canada could entertain the idea of an offer-to-purchase available land at a reasonable rate.

Some land can come initially from Church lands, which will be used to support farming parishioners who in turn will support the Church clergy and buildings. Small spiritual communities are an important aspect of church life.

Lands that are donated to support this project will inherit a legacy https://livingwatermicrofinance.org/living-water-microfinance-legacy/ One can also benefit from charitable tax deductions in the western world: http://africapitalism.us/african-landlord-donation/

 Tree Nursery & Carbon Tax Fund

SO THAT OUR BROTHERS AND SISTERS CAN LIVE IN DIGNITY  Living Water MicroFinance Inc. has an operating micro model in order to deliver a solution for the Carbon Tax Fund.

The Marginalization of the Poor in the Tropics

WHICH MODERN SOCIETY ITSELF HAS CREATED

We envision a world that solves the carbon emission problem by creating the tree nursery concept in Africa.

In the past four years, global prices of staples such as maize and wheat have twice hit record levels, driving hundreds of thousands of the world’s most vulnerable people further towards hunger and poverty.

The 100-year trend of falling food prices may be over and food prices may increase by 30-50 percent within decades, severely impacting on the very poor, who spend up to 90 percent of their income on food.

Domesticate indigenous fruit trees could help provide much-needed vitamins to millions of sub-Saharan Africans. The diversity of forest, fallow and agricultural margin foods can often help provide the range of micro nutrients needed for the human diet.

The trees’ natural habitats are being lost, mainly to widespread deforestation resulting from population growth, the cutting of trees for firewood or charcoal. Due to years of unsustainable farming practices, the soil across much of Africa has been degraded. African farmers only have access to 5% of the level of fertilizer per unit area of land as compared to their East Asian counterparts.

Farmers may see little incentive to intentionally grow indigenous fruits as a crop, because the trees are perceived as taking years to mature. This may be true in the wild, but not always when trees are cultivated.

With just 37% of the land, small farms produced 73% of agricultural output. Small farms are getting smaller because, with population pressure, farmers have to share access to existing land among more people while gaining no access to new land.

Land access for women is specifically part of the Millennium Development Goals.  According to FAO, fewer than 2% of landholders worldwide are women. Many men can make decisions about the land on behalf of themselves and their spouses, but women cannot. Another impediment is that in giving credit, governments and banks require women to present some form of authorization from their husbands or fathers: only 10% of agricultural loans go to women.

A fresh approach both to food production and the use of natural resources is needed if we are to avoid the food crises expected to touch every country in the world by the middle of this century. We can reverse the trend by giving small farmers, especially women,  the means to feed the world: with intensive/market oriented agriculture on a 1.5 acre piece of land.

Carbon Tax Tree Nursery
Today’s Tall Tree Nursery in Africa absorbs carbon emissions using finances from the Carbon Tax Fund.

The Secret is the AgroForest

Carbon Tax Tree Nursery
Today’s Tall Tree Nursery in Africa absorbs carbon emissions

Tree Nursery & Carbon Tax Fund

  1. An Improved seed, tree and fertilizer system: Today's-Tall-Trees
  • To absorb carbon dioxide in order to solve the global warming crisis
  • To produce more food economically in order to deal with world famine
  • To produce fruit, nut and fodder trees that will be used for furniture and not for burning.
  • To restore land by planting nitrogen-fixing trees among the fruit, nut and foliage trees
  • To develop organic agriculture without using chemical fertilizers or pesticides.
  • To provide all requirements of daily vitamin needs.

  3. Micro Financing for women farmers financed by the Carbon Tax Fund:  Small Farm: 1.5 acre: 500 orchard and foliage trees:

  • Carbon Tax Fund Support: $15/tree (brought forward) over the expected lifetime of 50 years. The $15/ton is equivalent to $0.14/US gal.
  • The cost of a HUG Irrigation System: $7,000,000
  • 14,000 acres to support 9,400 farms x 500 x $1.49 (NPV) = $7,000,000

NPV: Net Present Value of a tree is its value over its 50 lifetime of absorbing CO2 emissions at the rate of 1.5 tons/tree.

Please Noteanother calculation of NPV of fruit trees living for 25 years = $0.49/tree plus $1.00/tree for maintenance: $1.49/tree. (Fruit trees are productive for 25 years and then are replaced.)

The  $0.49/tree is based on $15/ton of carbon dioxide emissions. Canada will levy a $20/ton next and increase this to $30/ton . That means the new NPV will be $0.66/tree & $0.99/tree  respectively for a total of $1.66/tree and $1.99/tree.

  4.  Training with Field Officers and Agronomists

  5. Market facilitation with HUG electricity for cold storage of produce Continue reading GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE SOLUTION

ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?

ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?
ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?

DISASTER RISK IS INTENSELY CONCENTRATED.

ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?

DISASTER RISK IS INCREASING RAPIDLY.

ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?
ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?

The human race has never before faced such large and complex threats. As the waters threaten to overwhelm us, we remain fixed on the immediacy of business-as-usual. We cast around for more buckets. Our impulse is to scramble for a mop, to stem the consequences of the flood rather than deal with its source. We experience a global outcome of poor human choices — a domination of small decisions.

The UN issued its Global Assessment Report on the state of the world’s biodiversity. The figures are astonishing and sobering. Extinction looms for one million species; three-quarters of land and two-thirds of oceans have been severely altered by humans; plastic pollution is up tenfold in 40 years; crops worth three-quarters of a trillion dollars could be at risk from the loss of pollinators; 25 million kilometers of new roads are expected in 30 years. 

ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?
ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?

Species are vanishing up to 1,000 times faster than normal: faster than at any time in human history — the consequence of a rising human population and its resource demands. The disappearance of species is the only human impact that is truly irreversible. Extinction is eternal.  

SHORT TERM SOLUTIONS

We tinker with technological fixes, weak regulations and mild incentives while we hunt for resources to replace those we depleted.

In our hurried society, we strive for short-term achievements — higher yields and higher profits, with a focus on the next quarter, next year, or next election. Eternity requires a longer view. Continue reading ARE WE SIMPLY MAD?

THE CARBON GENIE 2

Global Change and Politics

It’s hard to get the general public to grasp the vast size of our carbon problem, that we will not only have to stop emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere BUT ALSO find a way to pull vast amounts of CO2 already in the atmosphere and put the carbon genie back in the bottle.

Pick a reason for forgetting about our grandchildren who will all be living in a new world of Global Change: Ignorance; Greed; Denial; Tribalism (following the group thinking); Short-term Thinking.

Carbon GenieAt least half of our wise leaders don’t even see our carbon emissions as a serious problem. Very few leaders will support any change because no-one in power wants what would disrupt the cosy status quo.

Here are the facts: the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that a massive amount of CO2 removal will be required this century — at least 500 billion metric tons pulled back out of the air — if we are to avoid the worst of global warming. 

There is no current magical technology to absorb all the harmful CO2 in our atmosphere. But there’s worse news. There are almost no business cases for carbon removal right now. In other words, it still costs nothing to spew CO2 into the sky, so people have no financial incentive to stop dumping, let alone pay to clean up the air.  At the very least that we can do now is to require a price to be put on CO2, making it more expensive to emit.

 

Nature is our untapped solution. Tropical forests are incredibly effective at storing carbon – providing up to 30% of the solution towards climate change. Despite this, nature-based solutions only receive 2% of all funding devoted to climate solutions.

Carbon Genie

What we need is a Marshall-style construction programs, and an acknowledgment that we have to escape failed paradigms. 

We don’t have the luxury of a lot of time: the best science says we have less than 10 years to reduce carbon emissions by at least 90% if we expect civilization to deal with the possibility of extreme global warming. 

Carbon Genie

The irony is that it will take far more funds to recover from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, if we decide to wait to act. The cost and consequences of inaction are too high to risk.

Hopefully, it will not take a climate catastrophe to motivate such action, such as the drowning of some coastal city like New Orleans.

What are we to do?

Continue reading THE CARBON GENIE 2

Unstable Weather 2

Phenomena of Unstable Weather

HEAT WAVES

The deadly weather phenomena, heat wave, is a long period of hot unstable weather. Heat waves have increased in frequency and duration in recent years and will continue to do so.

Unstable Weather

Carbon Tax is not Enough!

Carbon should not flow unpriced into the atmosphere, any more than you should be allowed to toss your garbage in the street. A rising carbon tax would discourage carbon emissions in every single economic transaction, every day of the year. 

Once one major country or region adopts carbon dividends with border carbon adjustments, other countries are compelled to follow suit [to prevent paying border adjustments to countries with carbon taxes]. One by one the dominoes fall.

Since every action of a modern life involves using fossil fuel, the only way to get enough change is to send a price signal through the matrix, so that everyone from investors to car buyers to milk-drinkers will find their behavior changing automatically. Carbon pricing is also one of the tools clean tech entrepreneurs cite as key to supporting innovation.

Carbon pricing plans now cover about 12 percent of the world’s emissions — have been far from earth-shaking.  At best, a carbon tax is one arrow in a quiver full of other arrows we’re going to need to let loose in a volley.

Unstable Weather

Bill McKibben’s “Step It Up!” campaign to stop global warming.

Step It Up, a nationwide campaign to combat global warming, drew thousands of Americans concerned about climate change. Holding 1,400 events around the nation, participants in National Day of Climate Action got creative. In lower Manhattan, protesters formed a line at the place where rising sea levels are predicted to reach. But that was ten years ago. Where is this model now?

Unstable Weather

If there is a model within American memory of what must be done, it is the civil rights revolution of the 1960s.

 Will FORESTATION occur rapidly enough to avert the worst effects of a warming world? 

Unstable Weather

The 2020 gap is, according to a recent United Nations Environment Program report, the difference between global emission levels consistent with the 2°C and emission expected if country commitments are implemented. “Global emissions should not be higher than 44 Gt CO2. However the range of expected global emissions (median estimates) from the pledge cases is 52 – 54 Gt CO2 in 2020. The gap in 2020 is therefore 8 – 10 Gt CO2.”  This gap can be CLOSED by FORESTATION.

Unstable Climate

Tropical forests are incredibly effective at storing carbon – providing up to 30% of the solution towards climate change. It has been estimated that 8 – 10 Gt CO2 could be stored in tropical plantations.

Despite this, nature-based solutions only receive 2% of all funding devoted to climate solutions.

Politicians are completely overwhelmed by the sheer complexity, size and number of crises in the world at present. Politicians should not be lurching from crisis to crisis like a drunk. They lack the leadership that Winston Churchill brought to the Second World War.

Unstable Weather

The Copenhagen Accord commits developed countries to the goal of sending $100 billion per year to developing countries in assistance for climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation through 2020. If ten per cent of this went to African farmers this would be around a micro finance support of $800 per farming household per year, which could provide a powerful incentive to change.

There was also a collective commitment by developed countries for $30 billion in “new and additional” resources in 2010-2012 to help developing countries reduce emissions, preserve forests, and adapt to climate change; and a goal of mobilizing $100 billion a year in public and private finance by 2020 to address developing county needs.

Aside from saving the planet, Are Tropical Nurseries a Good Investment?

YES!

Continue reading Unstable Weather 2

Reforesting the Tropics 2

Saving Humanity: Reforest the Tropics

Buying Time to develop alternative technologiesReforesting the Tropics

Planting trees remains one of the most cost-effective means of drawing excess CO2 from the atmosphere. Therefore, reforesting the tropics will act as carbon sinks, alleviating the greenhouse effect. There are millions of acres of tropical pastures available. When given proper care, orchard tropical trees bear fruit up to 50 years or more.

Reforesting the TropicsPLANT MORE TREES around the world — because… trees are carbon storage (sequestration) experts.

The United States has cut down over 50% of its original forests in the last 400 years, which would have absorbed 50% of its carbon emissions. Once carbon dioxide goes into the atmosphere it stays there for a long time. About 33% continues to cause damage after 100 years.

 It is estimated by the U.S. Forest Service that all the forests in the United States, combined, sequestered approximately 309 million tons of carbon each year from 1952 – 1992, offsetting approximately 25 percent of human-caused emissions of carbon during that period in the United States.

The world’s forests remove over one quarter (27%) of current annual human carbon emissions from the atmosphere each year, the equivalent of about 2.4 billion tons of carbon according to the latest published scientific research.

Reforesting the TropicsThe tropical zones of the world seem particularly attractive for forestation because of the high rates of productivity that can potentially be attained there, and because there appear to be large areas of land that would benefit from tree planting.

Reforesting the Tropics

TREE MATH

Young trees absorb CO2 at a rate of 13 pounds per tree each year. Trees reach their most productive stage of carbon storage at about 10 years at which point they are estimated to absorb 48 pounds of CO2 per year and one acre of trees absorbs 2.6 tons of CO2 every year.

 For every ton of new-wood growth, about 1.5 tons of CO2 are removed from the air and 1.07 tons of life-giving oxygen is produced.

POSITIVE GROWTH OF TREES IN THE TROPICS

Borial zone trees absorb 0.5 Pg C/yr compared to Temperate zone trees at 0.7 while tropical trees grow at the rate of 1.3 or 185% more efficiently year-round than trees in a temperate zone

Younger and faster growing orchards generally have higher annual sequestration rates and they are given higher personal care of proper fertilizer and water: add a further 25% increase. We conclude there is an additional (185% + 25%) or 210% increase in the value of CO2 absorption.

Reforesting the TropicsThis map shows solar-induced fluorescence, a plant process that occurs during photosynthesis, from Aug. through Oct. 2014 as measured by NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2. This period is springtime in the Southern Hemisphere and fall in the Northern Hemisphere. Photosynthesis is highest over the tropical forests of the Southern Hemisphere but still occurs in much of the U.S. Grain Belt. The northern forests have shut down for the winter.

 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia), CSIRO forests researcher Dr Canadell estimate that tropical forest re-growth is removing an average of 1.6 billion tons of carbon per year. Combining the uptake by established and forest re-growth plus emissions from deforestation, the world’s forests have a net effect on atmospheric CO2 equivalent to the removal of 1.1 billion tons of carbon every year. Reforesting the TropicsReforesting the Tropics

In terms of cutting emissions a 53% reduction in 2010 emissions is equal to almost 20 Gt of CO2 emissions. For some perspective, global emissions from coal fired electricity generation were about 9 Gt CO2 in 2010.

Reforesting the TropicsThe larger predictions from climate models are due to the fact that, within these models, the more important greenhouse substances, water vapor and clouds, act to greatly amplify whatever CO2 does. This is referred to as a positive feedback. It means that increases in surface temperature are accompanied by reductions in the net outgoing radiation – thus enhancing the greenhouse warming. … Satellite observations of the earth’s radiation budget verify this fact.

VALUE OF TROPICAL TREES

Moisture created by the rain forests travel around the world. America’s Midwest is affected by the forests in the Congo which is roughly a distance of 6000 miles. Moisture from the Amazon falls as far away as Texas.

The Benefits of Tropical Trees:

Continue reading Reforesting the Tropics 2

Decentralized Tree Nurseries in Africa 2

DECENTRALIZED TREE NURSERIES

More than 92 percent of all nurseries catering for villages are still located at regional and district levels. As a result, seedlings have to be transported long distances, sometimes even beyond 50 km. The inadequacy of transport is one of the major setbacks in tree-planting, in terms of both availability and cost. All efforts must be made to decentralize nurseries as much as conditions allow.

To bridge this energy supply-demand gap, a massive amount of tree-planting is needed. The natural forest is shrinking very fast, and most alternative energy sources have had no significant impact so far.

One of the main reasons tree-planting is failing among some African communities is that they are often given species only for firewood, like eucalyptus. 

 Weak village leadership contributes directly to delays over deciding whether to plant trees or not; and then, even if trees are planted, it can retard or neglect maintenance.

THE NEXT STEP: ORCHARDS AND BIOCHAR

Each woman farmer and their family will begin the task of preparing to plant 300 fruit and nut trees on their leased 1.5 acre farms, Every tree will need a 2- 3 feet diameter excavation, where a biochar earth mound will be built of branches.

nursery layout2

EARTH MOUND KILN

biochar mound

The earth mound kiln is built in the following manner:

The bottom of the base is covered with logs forming a grate or crib on which the wood is piled vertically. The grate forms a free space between the bottom and the wood charge through which the air necessary for the carbonization process passes. The piled wood is covered with leaves and grass and then earth about 20 cm (8”) thick.

The pile has an outside stack made of steel drums, which is connected to the pile through a flue cut into the ground, running under the pile and covered with round logs. The pile has a number of air vents located around the circular base.

biochar soil management

The carbonization process is started by introducing a torch into the firing flue opposite the stack. This type of pile is reported to be easy to operate to produce good charcoal quality with a yield of 55% charcoal to wood by volume. The pile’s volume varies from 100 to 250 m³ of wood. The whole cycle takes 24 days; four days for charging, six days for carbonization, ten days for cooling and four days for discharge.

 Carbon Emission to be Solved

Continue reading Decentralized Tree Nurseries in Africa 2

SUSTAINABLE BIOCHAR AND GLOBAL WARMING 2

SUSTAINABLE BIOCHARBIOCHAR SOLUTIONS

Sustainable biochar is a powerfully simple tool to fight global warming. This 2,000 year-old practice converts agricultural waste into a soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security, and discourage deforestation. Sustainable biochar is one of the few technologies that are relatively inexpensive, widely applicable, and quickly scalable.

Farmers in Brazil have long known about the “black earth,” or terra preta, found over vast areas of the Amazon. In the last decade or two archaeologists have begun to realise that the terra preta was not a naturally occurring phenomenon, but had been cultivated over centuries, if not millennia.  They turned some of the wood into charcoal and then worked it back into the soil, creating an unusually rich and fertile ground.

Traditionally, people have used biochar and ash in their fields. This practice exists all over the world. There is a need to recognize the value and create awareness on biochar. Farmers know that wherever biomass is burnt in the field’s crop grows stronger, healthier and better.

 In East Africa, sugarcane and maize waste is normally burned in the field, as it has no other value. In-field burning returns approximately 2-5% of the original carbon to the soil and a negligible amount of NPK.  It does little to improve soil, and is considered a major source of particulate and soot emissions in the region.

Burning without oxygen can also mean burning without smoke, which leads to the idea of replacing home heating and cooking stoves with pyrolizing kilns that provide the same functions but are clean-burning, inexpensive and easy to use, and instead of generating smoke and ash.

Biochar is essentially charcoal, but burnt at a lower temperature and with a more restricted flow of oxygen; it has the potential to end the slash-and-burn cycle in Sub-Saharan Africa.

According to researcher Bruno Glaser at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, a hectare of meter-deep terra preta can hold 250 tons of carbon, as opposed to 100 tons of carbon in unimproved soils. 

THAT MEANS THAT THERE IS A POTENTIAL  OF 150 TONS OF CARBON CAPTURE/ HA POSSIBLE. (THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE THE FORESTATION ON THE SAME HECTARE)

In addition, the bio-char itself increases soil fertility, which allows farmers to grow more plants, which allows more bio-char to be added to the soil. Johannes Lehman, author of Amazonian Dark Earths, claims that combining bio-char and bio-fuels could draw down 9.5 billion tons per year, or 35 Gt CO2 per year equal to all our current fossil fuel emissions.

Biochar Trenches

This is the simplest and convenient method for farmers to convert the crop residue / biomass in the farm lands into biochar trenches. All the biochar, burnt soil remains within the field could be conveniently spread by the farmer within the whole field.

It is more convenient to make such trenches after ploughing the field. Trenches perpendicular to the slopes also benefit the steep sloppy areas as water harvesting means. The entire crop residue otherwise burnt openly can be collected and dumped into these trenches lengthwise. More biomass can be added during the process. Once the trench is filled with biomass and compact, it should be covered by grass, weeds, broad leaves, etc. After covering it up, soil should be spread on the trench, a lengthy mound is created. Some water could be used to make the soil compact and for sealing the mound of biomass. A small hole is left open for lighting the biomass at one end and at the other end a very small opening is left open. Once it is lit, white smoke starts emitting at the other end. The result is a smoking mound over the trenches.  

When it smokes too much or when it cracks, too much oxygen is getting in. You must plastered more mud and earth over that part until the leak was stopped. You must keep an eye on the smoke, in order to stop the burn when it changed color. You can stop it by covering it with more earth to entirely cut off the oxygen.biochar-soil-management8

The trenches are 2 to 3 feet depth and 1.5 to 2 feet width. Small holes are to be made in a biochar along the length of the trench at every 10 to 15 feet in a biochar trench. After 24 hours the biomass is converted into biochar. Any little smoke or embers should be quenched with water or covered with soil while removing the biochar from the trench.

The alternative is to burn the biomass openly, which causes pollution and very little carbon is formed.

Over the three year study period, t was observed that the chances of seeds germination are 20% to 30% higher in the soils with biochar compared to control soils. All soil properties except pH showed significant changes. In both biochar amended and control soils, salt, manganese, and potash content showed consistent increases while phosphate content decreased.  Additional phosphate fertilizer may be needed. Organic phosphorus fertilizers come primarily from mineral sources, like rock dust or from bone sources such as steamed bone meal or fish bone meal.

biochar-soil-management23

Cacao plants planted into soil rich in biochar started producing fruits half the normal time. Plants seem to be supported for longer and there is less yellowing of leaves. 

BIOCHAR COMPOSTdegraded-land24

Continue reading SUSTAINABLE BIOCHAR AND GLOBAL WARMING 2

CLIMATE CHANGE 2

Optimism on Climate Change

 In the book, Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future, Johan Norberg points out that humans are a gloomy species. Some 71% of Britons think the world is getting worse; only 5% think it is improving.  It’s been devastating to see inaccuracies and confusion on the subject sometimes perpetuated by the media, especially on the topic of Climate Change. 

Blood and guts and disasters are what make for headlines. Is it any wonder that we feel apprehensive — with so many disasters “all around us”? The media amplify this distortion. Famines and earthquakes all make gripping headlines; “40 million Planes Landed Safely Last Year” does not.

Pessimism has political consequences. A whopping 81% of Donald Trump’s supporters think life has grown worse in the past 50 years.

Sweden in those days was poorer than Sub-Saharan Africa is today. “Why are some people poor?” is the wrong question, argues Mr. Norberg. Poverty is the starting point for all societies. What is astonishing is how fast it has receded. In 1820, 94% of humanity subsisted on less than $2 a day in modern money. That fell to 37% in 1990 and less than 10% in 2015.

As people grow more adept at abstract thought, they find it easier to imagine themselves in other people’s shoes. And there is plenty of evidence that society has grown more tolerant. The main reason why things tend to get better is that knowledge is cumulative and easily shared.

There is still the question of global warming, which is a worry?  Can human ingenuity tame it?

CAN we change? And the answer, fortunately, is now YES!

We’re seeing a continuing sharp, exponential decline in the cost of renewable energy, energy efficiency, batteries and storage  —  and the spread of sustainable agriculture and forestry  —  giving nations around the world a historic opportunity to embrace a sustainable future, based on a low carbon, hyper-efficient economy. 

WILL we change?

In December, 195 nations reached a historic agreement in Paris, which exceeded the highest end of the range of expectations. And the Paris Agreement is just the most recent example of our willingness to act. Much more change is needed, of course, but one of the binding provisions of the Paris Agreement requires five-year transparent reviews of the action plans put forward by every nation, and the first will begin in less than two years. These countries pledge to act to keep global temperature rises to between 1.5 and 2 degrees.

Also, over 1,000 non-state groups, from Tesco and Tata to Aviva and Cisco, have so far signed the Paris Pledge for Action on Climate. This new movement is  really self-preservation.  It begins with the investors. Would you invest in a company that was insensitive to climate change? Company executives know this insensitivity and they are acting accordingly.

Not only do we have to feel hopeful, but we have to speak hopefully because people are motivated by hope.  For example, global investment in renewables is predicted to be $8,000 billion over the next 25 years;

Carbon Offsetting by Planting Trees –                     Is it a realistic Proposition?

The oceans are enormously important. Carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean. If that hadn’t happened, and if the oceans weren’t there, climate change would already be much worse.  When CO2 is released into the atmosphere, about three-quarters of it dissolves into the ocean over a few decade (Acidity).

We must concentrate on the rest of the carbon dioxide emissions, which will only be neutralized by a variety of longer-term geological processes over 250 years.

The only true solution to combat climate change is by tree planting. Ending deforestation, which cause 10% of the problem, will not solve global warming by itself —urgent action is needed to cut the other 90 percent of emissions.

The world is home to over three trillion treeswith almost half of them living in tropical or subtropical forests. There are roughly 400 trees for every human. 12,000 years ago, before the advent of agriculture, Earth had twice as many trees as it does now. (The previous estimate of trees in the world was 400 billion.)

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degraded-land8

 Time to get the calculator and do some sums:

Continue reading CLIMATE CHANGE 2

MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

Here is how we begin our MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION:

 An African Revolution: if agricultural mechanization equipment is sent to an African country, like Ivory Coast, it has a value of $200,000 if it was brand new. The nearly new equipment has a real value of $100,000 hypothetically. The agricultural equipment dealer or farmer working with the dealer receives a tax refund benefit at the rate of the last $1000 owed to the government; say 30% of 100,000 or $30,000 from Living Water MicroFinance Inc., a non-profit company.

Mechanization in Africa

The new owner, Living Water MicroFinance Inc., will sell the equipment in question in Africa and will feel indebted to the previous owner, the equipment dealer or the farmer. This indebtedness will be 50% of the net selling price. This indebtedness will be resolved in our hypothetical example, by the purchase of additional new equipment from the dealer.  

If a farmer were to donate his or her used equipment there would be a large tax refund receipt and a cash credit from a third party, Coop Eau Vivante in Africa to a dealer of his or her choice or some other similar arrangement.

More important there will be a real contribution to poverty and famine in an underdeveloped country. We are talking about increased needed efficiency in the agricultural field, which will lead to more employment as well.

Since the need for this equipment is so high, the equipment will enter duty free and since this equipment will be sent to Africa, copies of bill of lading will be made available to the dealer or farmer. We are presently interested in exporting to Cote d’Ivoire.

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YOU CAN HELP by being our Partner:

Continue reading MECHANIZATION REVOLUTION 2

THE CONCEPTUAL AGE 2

The Conceptual Age has come.

The world as you know it is changing. The future belongs to a very different kind of person with a very different kind of mind. We are moving from an economy built on logical capabilities of the Information Age to an economy built on inventive, empathic, big picture capabilities of the Conceptual Age.

In the Conceptual Age we are doing what the overseas knowledge workers can’t do cheaply, that computers can’t do faster, and that satisfies the aesthetic, emotional and spiritual needs of a more prosperous time. In this new age, we need to offer something that satisfies the non-material, transcendent desires of an abundant age?

 So what are we to do to prepare ourselves for this change? We will concentrate on several aptitudes:

  1. The appetite for design thinking to reframe experience has never been greater. We start with Design: Today’s Tall Trees

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Forests act as a carbon sink by taking carbon dioxide out of atmosphere. It seems like simple arithmetic: a tree can absorb up to a ton of carbon dioxide over its lifetime (25 – 40 years), so planting one should be an easy way to mitigate climate change. Remember that tropical trees work 12 months of the year sequestering carbon because there is no dormant winter season. We need to plant billions of trees in Africa.

  1. We must tell our Story to communicate with others and to build a purpose.

Humans are not ideally set up to understand logic; they are set up to understand stories. Every society has told stories. We have a story to give away to someone else who needs it.

The basis of our work depends on agricultural mechanization. A young African will move to the city if all he can earn is $10/day. This same African will return to the land because mechanization has changed the whole picture: the farms can now be more productive.

Enter the world of Living Water MicroFinance Inc. Our company mission is to support women farmers and their families in Africa. We negotiate with landlords to make land available to these subsistence families for a long term lease over 25 years. We help produce cash crops, which include cacao and inter-cropping with yams and banana plantain. We start with a tree nursery that is supported by a Carbon Tax Fund, in which every tree that is planted and lives for 25 years has a net present value of $1.50.

  1. We must look at the Big Picture – combining all the pieces to a new whole or holistic thinking.

The ability to see the Big Picture encompasses the ability to grasp the relationships between relationships: integrating and imagining how all the pieces fit together. The person who invented the wheel may have been smart but the person who invented the other three wheels was a genius.

The Big Picture:

Stage 1     

We develop Agricultural Mechanization of Africa: The main objective of farm mechanization is increasing agricultural production. We focus primarily on the export of tractors.                          

Stage 2   Carbon Emission to be Solved

Continue reading THE CONCEPTUAL AGE 2