GLOBAL WARMING AND OUR MISSION:
Our mission is to be the best in the world in micro hydro electric and water resource management: by evolving innovative damless hydroelectric and water transfer technology. We create Today’s Tall Tree Nurseries to support Micro Finance for women farmers and their families using the Carbon Tax Fund, a new form of foreign aid, in order to address Global Warming. We export Mechanization for a more productive agriculture.
Urgent Global Warming
A total of 340 million ha of woody vegetation in dryland zones of Africa have become degraded through human activities like; overgrazing, agricultural expansion, over-exploitation, and deforestation, in the order of importance. Small-scale farming activities in the dry areas have, in particular, caused the greatest impact on vegetation degradation. Frequent fires and droughts have continued to accelerate degradation of woodlands and dry forests. In addition, about 482 million ha of drylands in Africa have suffered desertification through several physical factors such as degradation by wind and water erosion in addition to loss of nutrients and physical compaction.
Carbon markets are thought to be one of many innovative, market-based solutions to global climate change. These markets allow for the purchase of carbon “credits” by carbon emitters who need to offset their emissions based on a government set “cap”. The emitter could reduce carbon emissions or purchase credit(s) from a seller who is taking some action to reduce carbon emissions or sequester carbon.
Global cereal production must be increased by about 50% by 2050. Crop yields in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have either stagnated or declined since the 1990s because of the widespread use of extractive farming practices and problems of soil and environmental degradation. Yield potential of improved varieties is not realized because of soil degradation.
It is not enough to merely minimize the environmental impact. It is also important to maximize agronomic production while enhancing ecosystem services.
Most degraded and depleted soils of agro-ecosystems contain a lower soil organic carbon (SOC) pool than in those under natural ecosystems. Increasing the SOC pool in the root zone can enhance agronomic production (kg grains ha−1 Mg C−1) at the rate of 200 to 300 for maize (Zea mays L.), 30 to 60 for bean (Phaseolis vulgaris L.), 20 to 40 for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 20 to 50 for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]
We can earn smart carbon tax subsidies, which will change the growth of the Africa’s small holder farmers. This will help solve the problem of carbon dioxide build up in the world by growing and managing mature forests of foliage, fruit and nut trees that eventually are used in lumber — not firewood. The Carbon Tax Fund supports a Micro finance initiative to support women farmers and their families who will nurture these trees over their lifetime. The Net Present Value of each tree is $0.49 over 25 years, plus $1.00 for 25 years of maintenance.
Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. These contracts for carbon credits will improve the lives of some of the poorest people in West Africa, making it a very attractive option for countries to explore.Mitigation: A human intervention to reduce the human impact on the climate system; it includes strategies to reduce greenhouse gas sources and emissions and enhance greenhouse gas sinks.
Resilience: A capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment.
Sustainable Productivity: In simplest terms, sustainable agriculture is the production of food, fiber, or other plant or animal products using farming techniques that protect the environment, public health, human communities, and animal welfare. This form of agriculture enables production of healthful food without compromising future generations’ ability to do the same.
Transferring Seedlings of Trees
Clean Development Mechanism
The potential of using carbon offset credits from agroforestry projects for farmers in developing areas has become more prevalent in both Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and voluntary carbon markets.
Since the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, many international development organizations have been interested in using the Clean Development Mechanism to help both mitigate carbon dioxide emissions through agroforestry projects offsets and as a poverty reduction tool.
The Kyoto Protocol was established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is a legal agreement by 191 countries from around the world to meet agreed-upon targets in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions.
Since the protocol came into force, three carbon financial trading market was officially established as a way to mediate the exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions.
Most contracts for carbon credit projects are designed to be long-term, ranging from twenty to sixty years. The average market price for CO² equivalents for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in 2008-2009 was 10 Euros, which is about US$12 (Alexeew 2010). A third party required under CDM is typically involved to monitor the tree growth and to verify that the trees are being used properly.
Additional cost involved in protecting the trees from grazing animals or other threats that might damage the trees may be avoided like fencing. The cost of hiring additional people to watch the area can also be avoided by involving women farmers who protect their own orchard and gardens.
Computerized Budgeting Tool
The buyer of the carbon credit contract will pay the seller (the farmer) a set rate each year to keep trees for carbon offsets. In the up-front payment method or forward payment scheme, the farmer can be paid in advance for the carbon that the trees will sequester over a set amount of years.
In the sell as you go payment plan, the payment will increase over time, because the annual accumulation of biomass increases. The yearly payments are a sub-interval within the function of each tree’s growth curve.
Some projects are signing contracts with large groups of farmers as a community investment program. The Community Development Carbon Fund of the World Bank is one type of carbon credit program that is designed to allow farmers to sequester carbon on their land and promote sustainable development for the community.
We must identify potential trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa. High population density and small farm sizes, attain food security and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but they require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation.
Let us analyze an experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and production of Acacia albida under agroforestry at Mafiga, Morogoro, Tanzania:
The design used was a split plot, in randomized complete blocks and replicated four times. Three main plots were included:
(1) trees intercropped annually with maize,
(2) trees intercropped annually with beans)
(3) tree monoculture maintained under clean weeding.
Each main plot was subdivided into four subplots representing different tree densities: (1) no trees, (2) trees planted at 4 m × 4 m, (3) 5 m×5 m spacing, (4) 6 m× 6 m spacing.
At the age of 6 years, the A. albida was assessed for height, diameter growth, volume and biomass production. The mean height and diameter at breast height of the trees at this age were 8.4 m and 10.7 m, respectively. Height growth was not affected either by inter- cropping or by tree spacing, but diameter growth was significantly reduced at 4 m×4 m tree spacing. Spacing significantly influenced productivity with higher values obtained under close tree spacing and lower production under wide spacing.
Volume production varied from 9.9 m3 to 24.9 m3 ha−1 and total biomass production varied from 12.4 to 28.3 ton ha−1. Inter-cropping did not significantly influence tree volume and biomass production.
Food crop yields were low, varying from 200 to 400 kg ha−1 for beans and 300 to 950 kg ha−1 for maize. The yields were, however, not significantly affected by the presence of the trees, even at the closest spacing of 4 m × 4 m.
REPRESENTING WOMEN FARMERS
Few organizations that have begun talking with farmers about planting trees for carbon offset credits have been able to tell the farmers how much money they would receive from their new tree growth or the costs they will incur in doing so.
Part of the enterprise of Living Water MicroFinance Inc, a non-profit company, include paying local communities to measure their forests—to carry out forest inventories on a regular basis and administer the Carbon Fund on behalf of African women farmers.
Carbon Emission to be Solved
The world leaders must find a way to absorb carbon dioxide emissions that is in our atmosphere now. Trees and soils are the only way to absorb the present glut of CO2 in your world.
Presently these funds are improperly managed because they attempt to make the tax neutral by redirecting the fund for tax rebates to working families, cutting sales tax and reducing the tax on manufacturing. All this is very admirable but it doesn’t solve the high concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, which is presently causing global warming.
The Funds to Finance Rehabilitation
There are two sources of funds based on two different methods of absorbing carbon emissions: one from biochar in soils and the other from planting of trees.
On one hectare of farm land of 500 trees:
- Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) Fund for BIOCHAR IN SOILS
LND Fund seeks to mobilize US$2 billion annually; they estimate that the average cost of land rehabilitation is $100- $150/ha. In Africa, five countries have voluntary committed to LND including Senegal.
- 500 trees/hectare will yield 50 tons of Carbon from branches and weeds or (50 tons x ⅓) 16.7 tons of CO2 emission absorption from the production of
- The value of the capture of carbon in the form of Biochar is $250/year at the tax rate of $15/ton. (The LDN Fund offers $150/year based on $10/ton of carbon emissions.)
- The Carbon Tax Fund for TREES: the fund can support 500 trees for a total cost of $200/year for a period of 25 years plus an initial $750:
- There will be 500 trees with a NPV of $0.50/tree: at the rate of $15/ton, the Net Present Value (NPV) is $200/year.
- Add $1.00/tree for reporting and auditing for 25 years (that’s a one-off total – not per year): $500 to be monitored by Living Water MicroFinance Inc. for 25 years.
This part of the fund will support each 1.5 acre farm that will have access to $150/year n the form of micro finance assistance complements of the Carbon Tax Fund. Each $150 will be recycled nine times for a total of $1,350.
This micro finance will be made available to women farmers and their families who need support before the orchards become productive after 18 months: they will maintain this agroforest farms by planting vegetable like yam in between the new tree seedlings. The micro finance loan will be due after the harvest.
The tree farm is supported by a Today’s Tall Tree Nursery managed by Living Water MicroFinance Inc. in order to reduce the cost of tree seedlings. The fruit and nut tree seedlings along with nitrogen fixing trees are supplied by Today’s Tall Tree Nursery.
The reporting and auditing of trees for 25 years at the rate of $1.00/tree will help finance a Today’s Tall Tree Nursery to service over 100 hectare (beginning with 50,000 tree seedlings). The estimated fixed cost is $80,000. This decentralized system is preferable to the present centralized nurseries that have costly transportation costs for very vulnerable tree seedlings.
This calculation does NOT include income streams from the fruit and nut produce, which are reserved for the women farmers and their families. Later, irrigation can be added for a remunerative 275% crop improvement.
There will be a stipulation that all biomass on the 1.5 acre farm will be converted to Biochar every year. Creating Biochar on a farm involves incentives: the women farmer and her family will receive $150 based on the carbon tax rate of $15/ton for a total of 34 tons/year of carbon sequestered.
Living Water MicroFinance Inc. will arrange partnerships with African landlords (who provide a long term lease) for woman farmers and their families.
HELPING SOLVE WORLD’S CARBON POLLUTION
On a 1.5 acre farm of 300 trees:
- There will be 10 tons/year of CO2 emission absorption: at the rate of $15/ton, the Net Present Value (NPV) is $150/year (at the rate of $100/acre).
- The Carbon Tax Fund can support 300 trees for a total cost of $150/year for a period of 25 years plus an initial $450:
- There will be 300 trees with a NPV of $0.50: at the rate of $15/ton, the Net Present Value (NPV) is $150/year.
- Add $1.00/tree for reporting and auditing for 25 years (that’s a one-off total – not per year): $300 to be monitored by Living Water MicroFinance Inc. for 25 years.
There is a stipulation that all biomass on the 1.5 acre farm will be converted to biochar every year. The calculations for one acre is $100/year for biochar support of 200 trees and $300 initial support for the NPV of 200 trees ($100) and the reporting and auditing over 25 years ($200).
This Carbon Tax Fund Support will be converted into micro finance assistance. Each $150/farm/year will be recycled nine times for a total of $1,350. This fund will be made available to other farmers who need support before the orchards become productive after 18 months.
The women farmers and their families maintain this agroforest farms by planting vegetable like yam in between the new tree seedlings. The micro finance loan is due after the harvest. The original fruit and nut tree seedlings along with nitrogen fixing trees are supplied by Today’s Tall Tree Nursery.
The tree nursery funding will be supported by $300 NPV and Biochar charges/acre. The $80,000 Today’s Tall Tree Nursery will be supported by 267 acres or 106 hectare (0.4 square miles).
A Full Scale Aquaponic Tree Nursery in Africa supported by:
- A Micro Hydro Electric System: no dams: HugENERGY.us
- An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
- A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
- An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
- The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
- God’s Loveletters: Godloveletters.com
- Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
- Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com
Stage 1 Agricultural Mechanization of Africa
Stage 2 Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund
Stage 3 Micro Finance & Landlord Cooperatives
Stage 4 Irrigation in Remote Areas using kinetic energy from moving water.
Stage 5 Electricity Created in Remote Areas using moving water without the use of a dam.